Learning Process

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Learning Process by Mind Map: Learning Process

1. Old information can be taken in as new when other senses are used

2. Brain Processing Basics

2.1. Recognizing a pattern can activate known information

2.1.1. Recognition involves activating previous knowledge, and the pattern (a reoccurring design that happens in a recognizable way) is what is picked up upon

2.1.1.1. Recognized patterns = increased speed and efficiency of learning

2.2. Emotions matter in processing, comprehending, & creating knowledge

2.2.1. Emotions matter and are key to motivation

2.2.1.1. Motivation: critical for higher educational understanding (emotional control helps motivation)

2.2.1.2. Motivation = Expectation x Value

2.2.2. What is the value of a college degree?

2.2.2.1. Post-secondary education necessarily for 60% of jobs (ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education in Downing, 2013, pg. 96)

2.2.2.2. Increased mobility, improved health and life expectancy, better consumer decision-making, increased leisure activities = more likely with degree

2.3. Images are powerful

2.3.1. Why are images the are vivid, and humorous valuable?

2.3.1.1. More energy spent processing vivid, interactive, and humorous images

2.4. Understand & interest support deeper processing

2.4.1. Understanding and interest related to sense and meaning

2.4.1.1. Sense = understanding, while meaning = value

2.4.2. The approach of re-reading?

2.4.2.1. Problem: brain disregards already-encountered information

2.4.2.2. Solution: brain absorbs note-taking as a new approach that deserves its energy and time

2.4.2.3. Note-taking, helpful for efficient and effective learning

3. What Registers?

3.1. 2 Types of Stimuli

3.1.1. External Stimuli

3.1.1.1. 3/5 senses are crucial for learning: sight, hearing, touch

3.1.1.2. Multimodal learning: engaging many senses in the learning process - this is effective

3.1.2. Internal Stimuli

3.1.2.1. Self-talk: the important, powerful inner conversation that drives the processing of internal stimuli and can stir up physiological reactions

3.2. 3 Types of Self-Talk

3.2.1. Introduction

3.2.1.1. Self-talk - important soft skill that is rarely looked at in the learning process, critical for the executive function of self monitoring

3.2.2. 3 Types of Self-Talk

3.2.2.1. The Inner Critic: "everything is your fault"

3.2.2.2. The Inner Defender: "nothing is your fault"

3.2.2.3. The Inner Guide: *takes a step back to look at the situation objectively* (wise to tune into one's own inner guide rather than the other two types of self-talk) The Inner Guide = source of true self-monitoring

4. Information Processing and the 4 stages of Memory

4.1. Introduction

4.1.1. 4 stages of memory: a factor of brain complexity

4.1.1.1. 1. Sensory Register, 2. Immediate Memory, 3. Working Memory, 4. Long-term memory

4.1.1.2. Filtered-Out information: possible at every stage of memory

4.1.1.3. Moving useful information through the stages of memory = important for learning (willpower can play a factor in this)

4.2. Learning as dynamic & interactive

4.2.1. Memories are dynamic - they change slightly whenever retrieved

4.2.1.1. Interactive = ability to engage with one's learning process

4.2.1.2. Any difficulties with this can usually be helped with strategies, technologies, resources

5. Sensory Register

5.1. What happens in Sensory Register?

5.1.1. Sensory Register detects stimuli

5.1.1.1. Stimuli = something that causes people to react

5.1.1.2. External stimuli - something like a sound, image, or touch

5.1.1.3. Internal stimuli - some things like thoughts, feelings, emotions

5.1.2. Detects information consciously or subconsciously

5.1.2.1. Information that isn't stimulating enough, or is too repetitive = discarded

5.1.3. Why does the Sensory Register filter out repetitive stimuli?

5.1.3.1. Priority focused on new information

6. Immediate Memory

6.1. Time Constraints

6.1.1. Holds info for up to 30 seconds

6.2. Filters

6.2.1. Emotions able to effectively support learning if said emotions aren't overwhelming

6.2.1.1. Strong emotions = a shut down of conscious processing and restraint of learning (results in reflexive response that directs brain to cause of emotion)

6.2.1.2. Prefrontal cortex = logical judgmental center of brain, supports higher thinking

6.2.1.3. Amygdala = emotional center of brain, acts impulsively

6.2.1.4. Controlled, subtle emotions: info can be effectively passed to working memory, where strong emotions = info possibly discarded in immediate memory

6.2.2. Establish an intent to remember

6.2.2.1. Willpower to remember info = info more valued by brain

7. Working Memory

7.1. Actions of Working Memory

7.1.1. Working Memory involves mostly conscious processing

7.1.1.1. 4 primary actions: 1. Receives/holds new information, 2. Accesses Long-term Memory to recall familiar information, 3. Processes. new info with recalled info, 4. Discards info or sends info to Output or Long-term Memory

7.1.1.2. Processing is critical

7.1.1.3. Synthesis (mixing old and new info) involved in higher thinking such as college assignments

7.1.2. 3 Primary Challenges in Working Memory

7.1.2.1. 1. Extending the amount of time info stays in working memory, 2. Increasing depth of processing, and 3. capacity of working memory

7.1.2.2. Improving note-taking process impacts these challenges

7.1.2.3. Clearly identify main/supporting details in notes

7.2. Time Constraints of Working Memory

7.2.1. How Long will Information Stay in Working Memory?

7.2.1.1. Depending on how you interacts with information after it was originally taken in, possibly hours or days

7.2.1.2. Identified thresholds of Working Memory: 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week

7.2.1.3. Reviewing by interacting with recent information increases the time the information will stay in working memory and be retained

7.3. Capacity of Working Memory

7.3.1. 7 = capacity for items in Working Memory

7.3.1.1. Findings for 7 referred to as "The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two"

7.3.2. Interest, distraction, time impact capacity of Working Memory

7.3.2.1. If meaning/value established, more motivation in fully processing information

7.3.2.2. A challenge: to refocus on a task: involves spending energy, as well as reentering information into working memory

7.3.3. Brain can't recognize any distinction in 1 singular unit of information versus 1 chunk of information

7.3.3.1. By creating chunks of information, capacity of working memory is increased

7.3.3.2. Categorization and association = valuable learning styles because of the chunks of information these styles create

7.3.4. Mnemonic devices - strategy to increase Working Memory

7.3.4.1. By remembering an acronym, the brain holds onto that unit as it accesses known info. Mnemonic devices - personally helpful to me, such as PEMDAS

7.4. Mental Fatigue & Working Memory

7.4.1. Time limits on brain processing

7.4.1.1. Working Memory exhaustion point - 45 minutes

7.4.1.2. Taking a short break after 45 minutes of work, then reviewing material afterwards = the 45-5-10 approach

8. Long-Term Memory

8.1. Overview of Long-term Memory (LTM)

8.1.1. Process of storing and retrieving information

8.1.1.1. Info is retrieved to mix with new info, as well as to be reviewed

8.1.1.2. Retrieved information is altered slightly every time it's retrieved because people's mindsets change over time

8.1.2. Because memory is stored in various brain areas, retrieving memories can be a big job

8.1.2.1. Visualization is a helpful foundation for understanding of information, especially for visual learners such as myself

8.1.2.2. If information is taken in through multiple senses, then the memory will be stored in multiple areas of the brain

8.1.3. Deep Sleep and how it effects long-term storage

8.1.3.1. The sorting and smoothing out of long-term memories - linked to happening during deep sleep

8.1.3.2. Consolidation = information processed, organized, then stored

8.2. Factors Impacting Learning

8.2.1. Retention depends on many factors

8.2.1.1. Difficulty, ease in connecting new info with old, visually vs kinesthetically vs auditorily presented, current state of mind, rest levels = factors in retention

8.3. LTM: Sense and Meaning

8.3.1. Comprehension & Relevance

8.3.1.1. Studies support that when new learning makes sense and can be connected to past information, there is more cerebral activity

8.3.1.2. Retention is dramatically improved with these

9. Memory & Research

9.1. Ebbinghaus' Retention Effect: The Forgetting Curve

9.1.1. Practicality of knowledge

9.1.1.1. After periods of time, information that was taken in is progressively more forgotten

9.1.1.2. Shouldn't procrastinate with projects - instead make sure to take notes whenever necessary

9.2. Primacy-Recency Effect

9.2.1. Primacy = tendency to remember the early information in a learning session. Recency - the tendency to remember what comes towards the end of said session

9.2.1.1. Middle of the session, retention should be intentional, active and engaged

9.3. Von Restorff Effect

9.3.1. Distinctive information improves memory

9.3.1.1. Pictures, novelty, and humor resonate with brain

9.4. Ebbinghaus: Spaced Study

9.4.1. Ebbinghaus' work on Working Memory and mental fatigue

9.4.1.1. 45-5-10 approach is advised - it prevents fatigue and supports organized storage in long-term memory

9.4.1.2. 45-5-10 = spaced study