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History by Mind Map: History

1. Scope & Application (Jerry)

1.1. What's history?

1.1.1. Human past

1.1.2. Recollection of events throughout mankind

1.1.3. History isn't what happened in the past

1.1.3.1. What historians believes to have happened in the past based on credible sources

1.2. Why do we need history?

1.2.1. Helps us create common sense of the past

1.2.2. Creates better understandings in the world we live in

1.2.3. Helps to resolve any contemporary problems

1.2.4. Gives us insight into what the future's like

1.3. Current important events

1.3.1. Donald Trump

1.3.2. North Korea

1.3.3. Racism

1.4. Moral & ethical issues

1.4.1. People’s actions need to be judged within the context of their own time

1.4.2. Expect more moral behaviour of people in the past

1.4.3. Challenge our own assumptions that people in the past failed to make the right moral decisions

1.4.4. The importance challenging stereotypical views of human behaviour

1.4.4.1. E.g perceiving some groups of people as always victims and other as always perpetrators

2. Language & Concepts (Ashley)

2.1. What does language do in history?

2.1.1. Frames the thought and gives it status and strength

2.1.2. Aims for clarity and precision in order to aid accuracy

2.2. Roles of language in history

2.2.1. Bias

2.2.1.1. shows intent of historian

2.2.1.1.1. selection

2.2.1.1.2. type of evidence

2.2.1.1.3. omission of evidence

2.2.1.1.4. framework of attitudes

2.2.1.2. purpose or preconceptions from which historian approaches history

2.2.2. Reliability

2.2.2.1. relevance

2.2.2.2. appropriateness

2.2.2.3. worth of source

2.2.3. Primary source

2.2.3.1. authentic but might be biased

2.2.4. Secondary source

2.2.4.1. evaluation and analysis after time of the event selected by intent

2.3. Language in arts vs history

2.3.1. similarities:

2.3.1.1. both create narratives

2.3.1.2. must be peer reviewed by experts

2.3.2. differences:

2.3.2.1. history:

2.3.2.1.1. based on certain facts that need to be scrutinised before accepted

2.3.2.2. art:

2.3.2.2.1. facts can be made up and / or heavily shaped by the personal knowledge of an artist

3. Methodology (William)

3.1. How do historians deem what is true and untrue?

3.1.1. Different ways of analysis

3.1.1.1. Researching

3.1.1.1.1. Researching takes in the forms of studying various different sources and having to compare them in order to get the correct facts.

3.1.1.2. Interpreting

3.1.1.2.1. Historians need to interpret information in order to get a full picture of an event.

3.1.1.3. Narrating

3.1.1.3.1. Historians need to inform others of the information they gather and therefore must be able to narrate information.

3.1.2. Primary and Secondary sources

3.1.2.1. Primary sources

3.1.2.1.1. A source that comes from the time period, raw, relics of the past.

3.1.2.1.2. Advantages

3.1.2.1.3. Disadvantages

3.1.2.2. Secondary sources

3.1.2.2.1. Sources that draw on the raw material converted into history usually written by historians.

3.1.2.2.2. Advantages

3.1.2.2.3. Disadvantage

4. Historical Development (Nat)

4.1. Past history is viewed differently in retrospect

4.1.1. Lens in which historical event is used can be based on current events

4.1.1.1. E.g. Malcolm X's nationalist teachings revisited and reinterpreted in light of the Black Power Movement

4.1.1.2. E.g. Gandhi, India's Independence Movement studied by Martin Luther King Jr., in devising Civil Rights Movement, non-violent protest

4.1.1.2.1. In this case, nationalist aspects of Gandhi's movement were downplayed in favour of general 'Satyagraha' (soul force / non-violence)

4.2. Ancient History (60,000 BC to 650 AD)

4.2.1. History recorded based on potential for moral lesson

4.2.1.1. Use of the oral tradition - historical narratives told verbally, from generation to generation

4.3. Post Classical Eras (500 to 1500)

4.3.1. Narratives shaped around glorification of great men, nationalistic glory

4.3.1.1. History recorded in writing, as well as through paintings

4.4. Modern History (1500 to today)

4.4.1. Great attention paid to objectively analysing significant events, individuals

4.4.1.1. Use of typewriters, photographs, tape recordings, videos

4.5. Scope of history expands over time

4.5.1. Expands as a result of improved technology, and so better means of recording historical events

4.5.2. Fundamental methodologies remain intact

4.5.2.1. Source analysis based on nature, origin, purpose, values, limitations

4.5.2.2. Comparing and contrasting of sources

4.5.2.3. Source criticism

4.5.2.3.1. Determining of reliability of source, based on proximity to event, support from other sources

4.5.2.4. Determining of reliability based on proximity to event, degree of support by other sources

5. Personal Knowledge (Nairo)

5.1. What is the nature of the contribution of individuals you know personally to this area, in terms of your experience?

5.1.1. Experiencing a particular historical event and sharing personal experience to others (to the next generation)

5.1.1.1. making journals

5.1.1.2. being interviewed

5.1.2. Hearing / reading stories of other people and passing them to others (to the next generation)

5.1.2.1. Going to a museum or an exhibition

5.1.2.2. Seeing a drama performance based on a historical event

5.1.2.3. Reading historical books / documents / diaries

5.1.2.3.1. The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank was particularly interesting

5.1.3. Collecting sources and analysing/studying the event

5.1.3.1. Taking history lessons

5.1.3.2. becoming a historian

5.2. What responsibilities rest upon YOU by virtue of YOUR knowledge in this area?

5.2.1. To determine—or at least question—the reliability of historical information

5.2.1.1. VLOPC method

5.2.1.1.1. V-value

5.2.1.1.2. L-limitations

5.2.1.1.3. O-origin

5.2.1.1.4. P-purpose

5.2.1.1.5. C-content

5.3. What are the implications of this area of knowledge in terms of YOUR individual perspective?

5.3.1. that history is a collection of stories selected by historians

5.3.1.1. The same historical event can be experienced / interpreted differently by different individuals

5.3.1.1.1. factors include...

5.3.1.2. Historical event can be interpreted differently by different historians depending on which sources he or she chooses to use

5.3.1.2.1. even if historians chose the same sources, it does not mean that they all interpret the historical event in the same way

5.3.1.3. Readers / receivers can interpret the historical event differently from how historians presented it

5.3.1.3.1. due to the gap between producers and receivers

5.4. What assumptions underlie YOUR own approach to this knowledge?

5.4.1. assume that all sources are biased to some extent

5.4.1.1. understand which side the author is on

5.4.1.1.1. link back to origin + purpose

5.4.1.2. therefore be readers must be openminded

5.4.1.2.1. get the overall picture

5.4.1.3. understand opposing views