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Memory by Mind Map: Memory

1. If you see a picture that could be two things (ex. Bunny or duck) -> watching before bunny cartoon -> identify a bunny

2. Conditioning

2.1. Instrumental Conditioning

2.1.1. Thorndike - Law of effect Any behavior followed by pleasant consequences, is likely to be repeated Behavior followed by unpleasant consequences, likely to be stopped

2.2. Appetitive conditioning

2.2.1. Conditioned reinforcer Money Although you might not need it at the moment, money (secondary reinforcer) can work as a reinforcer (-> continue to save it) because you know that in a certain of saving, you will get a big reward (primary reinforcer) (buying something big) We are working just to get to the thing that predicts the reward

2.2.2. Rat presses lever and gets a drug. In a room there are several levers, some which give the drug and some not. After conditioning, rat prefers and chooses levers that give the drug Rat learns behavior Associated with reward

2.3. Classical Conditioning

2.3.1. Trace Conditioning CS and UCS dont overlap

2.3.2. Delay Conditioning CS comes before and overlaps UCS

2.3.3. An automatic response becomes associated with another stimuli that usually does not produce this response

2.3.4. Cerebellum

2.3.5. Eyeblink Conditioning Puff and sound -> blink after sound Also in amnesic They dont remember the procedure but they are conditioned to blink after sound -> conclusion: conditioning is independent from declarative memory, other brain mechanisms are involved

2.4. PIT Pavlovian to instrumental Transfer

2.4.1. Stimulus - reward training Light - reward

2.4.2. Action outcome training Pressing lever - leward

2.4.3. Pulling the lever Light goes on But no food -> no extinction Rat continues to press lever Drug addicts

2.5. Conditioned desire

2.5.1. They paired blue light (CS) with female fish (CS), wall separating the male from the female.

2.5.2. After a while, the male fish showed courting behavior when seeing the blue light

2.5.3. -> conditioning led to more reproductive success

2.6. Fear conditioning

2.6.1. Context dependent fear After few days, same cage, NO TONE -> FREEZE

2.6.2. Tone dependent fear After few days, different cage WITH TONE -> Freeze

2.6.3. Fear parameter Freezing/Total Time

2.6.4. Auditory Fear Conditioning Tone needs to be BEFORE the shock in order to condition the rat to freeze after hearing only the tone When shock and tone was unpaired

2.6.5. Patient with Korsakoff, Could not remember that doctor shaked his hand with a needle hurting him But next time he came to shake his hand, he hesitated

2.6.6. Amygdala

2.6.7. Brain mechanisms of Fear conditioning Neural plasticity of the LA in the Amygdala -> allows association of tone with shock. UR of freezing after shock -> conditioned response of freezing after hearing the tone

2.7. Conditioned taste aversion

2.7.1. Eating spoiled food -> nauseous and vomit -> disgust

2.7.2. Next time you see, smell this food, you get disgusted

2.7.3. Aversion therapy Alcohol (CS) + Nausea drug (UCS) = Nausea (UCR) After conditioning: Alcohol (CS) -> Nausea (CR) Limitations To inhibit unwanted behaviors Associating behavior with aversive stimulus

2.8. Aversive experiences in the Office

2.8.1. Making association between office and aversive experience (getting fired)

2.8.2. Every time you think about office, you Experience the stress associated with the event of getting fired

2.9. Extinction - when CS doesnt lead to CR anymore

2.9.1. Reinstatement - after extinction giving unpaired shock again Fear conditioning -> Extinction -> Shocks Testing

2.9.2. Renewal - extinction in Context B but will again freeze in Context A Fear conditioning context A -> Extinction Context B

2.9.3. Spontaneous recovery - extinction but then long interval and then hearing tone again Fear conditioning -> Extinction

2.9.4. Extinction mechanism in the Brain MPFC can inhibit Amygdala NMDA receptors in amygdala are involved in extinction initiation

2.9.5. Fear Extinction & cognitive behavioral therapy D-cycloserin (partial NMDA agonist) -> together with therapist replacing fear memories with healthy memories, D-closerine facilitates this process!

2.9.6. Reconsolidation Interference for erasure of fear Memory If you have the extinction immediately after the reactivating (10min vs. 6hrs) -> extinction of fear works better

2.9.7. Eyeblink Conditioning When you puff in someone’s eye and at the same time give a tone -> conditioned to blink after the tone

3. Encoding & Retrieval

3.1. Rehearsal

3.1.1. Def.

3.1.2. Maintenance rehearsal Repeating No meaning and connection STM or WM No into LTM

3.1.3. Elaborative rehearsal Meaning, connections Into LTM

3.2. LOT - Levels of Processing theory

3.2.1. Def. Information is encoded and retrieved better when we deeply encode it

3.2.2. Deep Animacy Liking Categories Self generation

3.2.3. Shallow Physical properties

3.2.4. EXP: Tulving

3.3. How encoding influences Retrieval?

3.3.1. Complex sentence

3.3.2. Visual images EXP:

3.3.3. Self-reference Effect EXP:

3.3.4. Generation Effect EXP:

3.3.5. Organizing EXP: categories - Cues EXP: Tree - Metalls/Stones Meaningful framework Getting a picture before reading a highly complicated paragraph

3.3.6. Testing effect Results Better memory when testing yourself then rereading!

3.4. Retrieval Cues

3.4.1. Free Recall Who was at the party Context is the cue

3.4.2. Cued Recall - Categories Cued Recall - self created Cues

3.5. Y/N Recognition

3.5.1. Was Sarah at the Party?

3.6. Forced Choice Recognition

3.6.1. Who was at the party, Sarah or Peter?

3.7. Serial recall

3.7.1. In what order did items appear

3.8. Matching Encoding and Retrieval Conditions

3.8.1. Encoding specificity EXP: Underwater Shallow processing can overpower deep processing EXP: Noise & Silence

3.8.2. State dependent learning

3.8.3. Transfer appropriate Processing

3.9. How to study more effectively?

3.9.1. Elaborate

3.9.2. Generate and Test

3.9.3. Organize

3.9.4. Take breaks Spacing effect

3.9.5. Match learning and testing conditions

3.9.6. Avoid illusions of learning Highlighting Rereading

3.10. Imagery

3.10.1. Method of Loci

3.10.2. Pegword technique

3.11. Remembering experience depends on

3.11.1. Ebbinghouse learning curve Nonsense syllables Repetition effect Repeated items -> better recall 5th repetition almost perfect Memory is measured according to how many trials it takes you to gain perfect recall

3.11.2. Repetition only effective for recognition (ex. Multiple choice) but not recall (-> number of contexts)

3.11.3. EXP: Thorndike - Association Temporally contiguity not enough, we need association Bread 29, Texas 78 Word with number Many ppl had it right Asked about number before word Almost no one

3.11.4. What do we need to remember experience? Attention Distinctiveness Salient Emotional motivating Organization

3.11.5. Von Restorff Effect Unusual, outstanding stimuli is easier to recall

3.11.6. Word frequency Recall Better more frequent words Recognition Better less frequent words

3.11.7. Survival memory 3 conditions Survival Moving Pleasantness “How relevant/pleasant are the following items for you?” -> better memory in survival condition

3.11.8. Mnemonic devices Taxonomy Pyramid, letters -> sentence For encoding meaningful information

4. LTM - Long term Memory

4.1. Declarative (Explicit)

4.1.1. Semantic (Facts) MTL

4.1.2. Episodic (Events) Hippocampus MTL Mental time travel Can enhance semantic knowledge (-> adds meaning)

4.2. Non-Declarative (Implicit)

4.2.1. Procedural Skill memory New Topic Amnesia patients can master a skill without remembering the practice that led to mastery Mirror drawing

4.2.2. Priming Repetition Priming Conceptual Priming EXP: Implilcit Memory for Amnesics Immediate semantic priming 2 conditions: 1: neutral words, 2: night related words. Then ask: what word you associate with “dream”? -> more ppl responded “night” in the 2nd condition Propaganda effect Rating statements as being true simply because they have been exposed to them (even if told that they are not true or unaware of message)

4.2.3. Classical Conditioning Emotional Memory Amygdala Motor skill Memory Skeletal responses Delay conditioning - classic (implicit) Trace conditioning - less cerebellum activity -> more forebrain activity (explicit)

4.3. EXP: Incomplete Pictures

4.3.1. Results

4.4. WM

4.5. Two paths to LTM

4.5.1. Arousing event Attention Distinctive Organized

4.5.2. Not arousing Mnemonic devices

5. Stages

5.1. Encoding

5.1.1. Def. New fragile memories become strengthened (less prone to disruptions)

5.2. Consolidation

5.2.1. Synaptic At synapses Rapidly over period of minutes

5.2.2. Systems Gradual organization of brain regions, over long time (years, months) One part of brain is important at encoding

5.3. Reconsolidation

5.3.1. after consolidation, when we reactivate a memory it can be come interrupted Interference in reconsolidation Can weaken or erase memory

5.4. Retrieval

6. Prospective Memory

6.1. Doing something particular in the future

6.2. Intention

6.3. Delayed

6.4. Not held in WM

6.5. Ex. Buying milk on way home

6.6. 2 types

6.6.1. Event based

6.6.2. Time based

6.7. Will i remember it? Depends on

6.7.1. Importance

6.7.2. Will i get interrupted

6.7.3. Cues

6.8. 2 Theories

6.8.1. PAM Always some attention is needed

6.8.2. Multiprocess model The kind of task, what i do at the moment determine if cue finding is effortful or automatic

6.9. Older adults

6.9.1. -> delay in execution

7. Decision Making

7.1. Expected Utility

7.1.1. My value

7.1.2. My chances

7.2. Consistency

7.2.1. A=B, B=C, -> A=C

7.3. Loss aversion -> leads to risk taking

7.3.1. We are conservative about winning

7.3.2. Adventurous to avoid losses

7.3.3. Amygdala Damage -> eliminates the loss aversion

7.4. Sunk-cost effect

7.4.1. Continuing to invest in something that clearly is not working, just in order to avoid failure and quitting

7.5. Endowment effect

7.5.1. If something is yours, it is more worth than if i dont own it Coffee mug

7.6. Framing effect

7.6.1. Avoiding risks when positive frame

7.6.2. Seeking risks when negative frame

7.6.3. Participant gets 50 dollars -> 2 diff. Frames Keep 20 or: gamble all or nothing Lose 30 or: gamble all or nothing Brain areas Going with the frame (in both) Going against the frame (in both)

7.7. Omission Bias

7.7.1. Rather doing nothing and having bad things happening to you, rather than to do something and bad is happening

7.8. Prospect theory

7.8.1. Tversky and Kahneman proposed that losses cause a greater emotional impact on an individual than does an equivalent amount of gain, so given choices presented two ways—with both offering the same result—an individual will pick the option offering perceived gains.

7.8.2. For example, assume that the end result is receiving $25. One option is being given the straight $25. The other option is gaining $50 and losing $25. The utility of the $25 is exactly the same in both options. However, individuals are most likely to choose to receive straight cash because a single gain is generally observed as more favorable than initially having more cash and then suffering a loss.

7.9. Subjective value of food rewards

7.9.1. The more we are willing to pay for a food, OFC increased

7.10. Reward prediction

7.10.1. Expecting a juice after a light signal

7.10.2. Once learned (light=CS), dopamine Neurons respond not to the reward but to the light. When no reward -> dopamine neurons decrease

7.10.3. Dopamine High when Expecting a reward not when getting the reward

7.11. Evaluation of free goods

7.11.1. Linds vs hersheys

7.12. Decoy effect

7.12.1. Ex. Menu in restaurant One expensive item -> increases possibility to choose the other items (seem cheaper) Dating Small expensive TV increases chances to buy the bigger and cheaper ones

7.13. Prospective vs. Retrospective Devaluation -> Bear

7.13.1. 2 beer choices: microbrew or goldstar, taste both. When choosing microbrew (because its tasty) and getting the information AFTER tasting that its regular beer with vinegar, ppl will still take it (retrospective)

7.13.2. When getting info before trying it -> will less likely choose it, even if its the same taste

7.14. Overbidding in Auctions

7.14.1. Overbidding someone -> defeating competition -> dopamine boosth

7.14.2. Loosing -> inhibits dopamine

7.15. Social ID number and willingness to pay for wine

7.16. Anchoring

7.16.1. Relying on initial information in order to make decisions

7.17. OFC

7.17.1. -> decision making

7.18. Iowa Gambling task

7.18.1. ABCD Bad cards/Good cards Getting the bad cards -> stress responses Ppl with Frontallobe dysfunction -> dont feel the Stress and continue playing the bad cards

7.19. Temporal discounting

7.19.1. When rewards are so distant in the future, they tend to lose their value for ppl

7.19.2. Patience connected to IQ

7.19.3. Less patience in gambler, drug and alcohol addicts, impulsive ppl (kids)

7.20. Implicit risk theory

7.20.1. ?

7.21. Delayed monetary rewards

7.21.1. The longer I need to wait for someone paying me money, the value of the reward declines.

7.21.2. Salary paid 3 days late -> much bonus, after a week -> less bonus expected

7.21.3. Connected to mPFC The more reward expected, The higher activity in mPFC

7.21.4. Immediate reward Mesolimbic dopamine circuits (VTA-Accumbens)

7.21.5. Delayed reward Mesocortical pathway (VTA-PFC)

8. Structure

8.1. Sensory

8.1.1. WM

8.2. Short term

8.3. Long term

9. Memory problems

9.1. Amnesia

9.1.1. Anterograde

9.1.2. Retrograde Temporally retrograded Amnesia Remember remote memories similar to healthy ppl Recent memories -> much less then healthy

9.1.3. Infantile Amnesia Recalling only few memories of childhood

9.1.4. Concussion Retrograde amnesia less severe for remote memories

9.2. Korsakofs Syndrom

9.2.1. Vitamine B1 deficiency Alcoholism Destroys frontal and temporal lobes

9.3. HM

9.3.1. Hippocampus removed -> Anterograde Amnesia

9.3.2. No explicit but implicit memory Motor skills learning (mirror drawing) Cognitive skills learning (Tower of Hauoi)

9.3.3. Memory from long time ago was less affected -> Hippocampus plays a role in encoding and consolidation

9.4. Dissociative Amnesia (Mnestic Block Syndrom, Psychogenic Fugue)

9.4.1. Rare psychiatric disorder

9.4.2. Reversible

9.4.3. Spontaneous Recovery

9.4.4. Usually short, but can also take longer

9.4.5. Forgetting past & identity Sometimes involved with establishing new identity

9.4.6. Triggered by trauma or stressful event

9.4.7. Unplanned traveling or wandering

9.4.8. Not enough activity in RVLPFC (area for emotions+self concept)

9.5. Transient Global Amnesia

9.5.1. Sudden and short (minutes - hours)

9.5.2. Anterograde memory loss and a bit retrograde amnesia

9.5.3. Know personal identity

9.5.4. Normal cognition

9.5.5. No brain damage

9.5.6. Less blood flow in Hippocampus

9.6. Confabulation - Honest lying

9.6.1. Inventing bizarre, false realities (ex. Being pirate)

9.6.2. Often together with amnesia

9.6.3. Provoked or spontaneous

9.6.4. Confusion about time Thinking past is present

9.6.5. Trying to transform stressful event into a more bearable one

9.6.6. Lack of memory monitoring Checking if memory is plausible

9.6.7. VMPFC

9.7. Dementia

9.7.1. Dentate gyrus

9.8. Trauma

9.8.1. Stress - Defense mechanisms Repress explicit memory But not implicit

9.8.2. Dissociation Things that happen in memories that we cant bring to the conscious Unconscious memories

10. Problem Solving

10.1. Well defined problem

10.1.1. Algorithmic paths to solution

10.2. Ill defined problem

10.2.1. Involves more thinking

10.2.2. Reproductive thinking Experience approach

10.2.3. Productive thinking Novel approach

10.3. Insight

10.3.1. Solution suddenly becomes clear -> obvious, simple solution

10.3.2. Requires reconstruction of the problem

10.3.3. How? After trying to apply well known solution and failing, stop trying to find one -> incubation time -> Heureka -> AHA -? Solution is fully formed Putting problem aside for awhile Insight overcomes functional fixedness to reach novel solution

10.4. Representational Change Theory

10.4.1. When you try to retrieve from LTM information to solve a problem, but it doesnt lead to a solution (block)

10.4.2. The way the problem is represented needs to change: Elaboration (adding new info) Constraint relaxation (rules are formed new, reinvented) Thinking outside of the box Re-encoding -> functional fixedness is removed Checkerboard - Dominos If each domino is represented as an object covering one black and one red square (re-encoding) And represent the draught-board as having lost 2 black squares (elaboration) It becomes clear that no arrangement will allow 31 dominoes to cover the 62 spaces (constraint relaxation) /. Streichhölzer Representational change Constraint relaxation


11.1. Autobiographical Memory

11.1.1. Def. Includes semantics and episodic Mental time travel Emotional significance

11.1.2. Multidimensional Spatial, sensory and emotional

11.1.3. EXP: Photos Had ppl take photos of places with own camera. In lab they looked at their own photos, other ppls photos from those places. A week later they saw again their own, others old and others new For both their own photos and others old -> parietal cortex activation For their own -> more hippocampus

11.1.4. Experiencing Self Depends on how happy we are IN our life

11.1.5. Remembering Self What we think about our life

11.1.6. Anticipating self Future episodic thinking

11.1.7. Reminiscence bump PPl aged 40 remember recent events and from adolescence and early adulthood. Self image hypothesis When you developed your adult identity Cog. Hypothesis Rapid changes in life (marriage, children) -> more memory (cognition) Cultural Life script Remember events that fit into our cultural script - doing something at a time when it is expected

11.1.8. Recency More AM of recent events

11.1.9. Better Memory for Personal milestones Very emotional events Events with significance for later (marriage) Transition points (graduation, baby)

11.1.10. Highly deficient AM

11.1.11. New Topic

11.2. Exceptional Events

11.2.1. Memory & Emotions EXP: Neutral & Arousing words EXP: Neutral & Arousing Pictures More Amygdala activation

11.2.2. Flashbulb Memories Event around a shocking emotionally charged event Remembered for a long time and detailed Why? EXP: Repeated Recall

11.3. Constructive Nature of Memory

11.3.1. Def.

11.3.2. Source Monitoring Error EXP: Famous over Night Happens because of sleep consolidation Misidentification because of familiarity EXP: Gender Stereotype Biases in Attribution Chris and Pat - different statements - Reading, reveal gender EXP: Female vs. Male Voice -> less source monitor errors Hearing a story told by a woman Def. Something is attributed to the wrong source What else effects source monitoring errors? Age Frontal Lobe damage

11.3.3. Cryptomnesia Incorporating events or content from books, movies, songs into autobiographical memory You think it comes from you

11.3.4. Pragmatic Inference EXP: Hammer pounding

11.3.5. Scripts & Schemas Script EXP: Dentist Cultural script Schema EXP: Office Top down processes Memory for a List - DRM EXP: words related to sleep - try to remember. When asked to write down as many as possible, mostly (and falsely) includes “sleep” -> like Schema

11.4. Suggestion

11.4.1. Misinformation Effect Def. EXP: Loftus Explanation for MPI Def. Misleading post event Information is incorporated into the memory of an event Memory trace replacement Retroactive interference Source monitoring error

11.5. Eyewitness Testimony

11.5.1. Influenced by Attention & bias at event (ENCODING) Post event info (CONSOLIDATION) Constructive nature of memory (RETRIEVAL)

11.5.2. Weapon focus Shooting decreased details recalled

11.5.3. Familiarity effect EXP: Eye witness testimony Misattributing the source of something by choosing the criminal just because he looks familiar and we dont remember where we saw the familiar guy

11.5.4. Line up bias -> just because there are ppl to choose from, means one is the criminal Every participant chose on in the line up, even though the criminal was not present

11.5.5. Suggestion Did you see the white car? Or: Which one did it?

11.5.6. Post-identification feedback effect

11.5.7. Misleading postevent Information + Reconsolidation -> Reverse testing effect The ones that were tested after video (reconsolidation) were more affected my misinformation

11.5.8. Similarity

11.5.9. -> Solution: Enhanced Cognitive Interview Report everything Imaging everything again -> mental reinstatement Change order & perspective Open ended, neutral questions

11.5.10. Avoiding mistakes Tell them the criminal might not be in the line up Put similar looking ppl Experimenter should not know who is the criminal Show one at a time Ask how confident they are with their choice ECI

12. Brain

12.1. Heb

12.1.1. Neural record of all our experiences Memories - patterns of neural activity Neural activity strengthens synapse (Fire together, wire together) Structural changes More NT release Increased firing of neurons after repeated stimulation (=LTP) -> more affective synapses -> enhanced responding

12.1.2. Plasticity Leads to a change in strenght of synapse -> more Neurotransmitter released Interneuron modulation New synapses Rearrangement of synapses

12.1.3. Roles of AMPA and NMDA receptors in transmission and plasticity Glutamate -> activates AMPA -> when enough activates, neuron gets depolarized, Mg of NMDA goes away -> Ca influx to the cell -> activates protein kinases (Enzym) Ca+CAM -> camkinase -> affects AMPA receptors to: Phosphorylation (= activates receptors, longer open, more sodium, more depolarization) Pushes receptors form inside out to the Membran Retrograde signaling CREB binds to CAMP in DNA promotor regions Changes transcription rate

12.2. Brain Areas

12.2.1. MTL Hippocampus Forms new LTM Context, association, recollection 2 Neuron layers Perirhinal Cortex EXP: “old, new picture” Visual, recognition, familarity When new stimuli Familiar stimuli Entorhinal cortex Recognition Parahippocampus Spatial Item

12.2.2. Amygdala Emotional Stress Cortisol and adrenaline Mediation model vs Modulation model Better memory with emotions Emotional taboo words Fear conditioning Inter Positur nucleus (Cerebellum) 2 Theories Modulation Mediation model

12.2.3. Fusiform gyrus RH Visual LH Verbal

12.3. Standard Model of Consolidation pg. 194 book

12.3.1. First we need Hippocampus for retrieving our memories, but once consolidated, we no longer need him for recall

12.3.2. Connection between cortical areas and hippocampus but then weaken as connection between cortical areas alone get strong Incoming information during experience activates different areas in cortex Communicate with hippocampus to form an event Reactivation of memory

12.3.3. When Amnesics (had no hippocampus) where compared with healthy ppl and needed to tell about autobiographical memory -> almost no difference Hippocampus initially important for forming memory but then possible without

12.4. Multiple Trace Hypothesis

12.4.1. Gilboa Showed pictures from age 5 till present Hippocampus activated for both remote and recent memories We can remember good without it, but not story like

12.5. Reconsolidation

12.5.1. EXP: Nader - Fear conditioning - Anisomycin When reactivating memory Reconsolidation

12.6. EXP: Hupbach - List of words Interference in Reactivation

12.6.1. Both groups learned 1. List. No reminder group: 2nd day: 2nd list Reminder group: 2nd day: list one and list two When asked to recall the reminder group did much worse, because they reactivated their memory from the first day and mixed it with the 2nd list

12.7. EXP: PTSD - Probanolol

12.7.1. One group listened to their traumatic experience, and given propranolol, other group placebo

12.7.2. A week later, both listened to the clips again Propranolol group had less skin conductance and BP Given the medicine when memory was reactivated , blocked stress response - reduces emotional reaction when remembering the trauma

12.8. Liking Objects

12.8.1. Rate your liking of 200 objectsne Next day: showed them the names of object as a reminder Next day: same pic as in first day and then similar but different object (interference)

12.9. Making new Memories

12.9.1. DM (Difference Memory) Activation of certain brain areas that predict later memory (encoding words)

12.9.2. SM - Subsequent Memory effects Declarative Memory Fusiform gyrus RH visual LH verbal LIF Gyrus Hippocampus Parahippocampus

12.9.3. SF - Subsequent Forgetting effects Temporo parietal junction -> attentional distraction Degree of activation determines later failure to remember

12.9.4. EEG Not where but when and how much activity

12.9.5. Hippocampal indexing theory Hippocampus connects different cortical areas into one unified episodic memory Repeated activation of neuronal patterns -> LTP -> enhanced responding

12.9.6. Single Trial learning Hippocampus can remember based on one single experience Semantic - association

12.9.7. Neuromodulation of memory Cholinergic Pathway Fornix brings ACh from Basal Forebrain to Hippocampus ACh - Novelity of stimulus Dopaminergic Pathway VTA -> Hippocampus

12.9.8. Emotional enhancement of Memory The more emotional the information, the more attentive you are. Emotions->stress->amygdala activation->better memory

12.9.9. Neural processes of memory formation - Vision Ventral Visual Stream Object recognition

12.9.10. Familiar face or object Reactivation of the same neural network that were active when we first saw it Hebbs law What fires together wires together Reactivated firing -> enhanced connection Tetanus Artificially electrical stimulating neuron in lab

12.9.11. Remembering Recognition Pattern of neural activity reactivated at retrieval Recall Cue Episodic (and autobiographic memory) MTL, Hippocampus, Perirhinal cortex

12.9.12. Plasticity Neuron is plastic if we can change its strenght This affects further firing on target neuron More strenght through More neurotransmitter More receptors Interneurons envolved New Synapses Synaptic rearrangement

12.9.13. Reward and Punishment on memories Reward -> VTA-Hypoth.(Dopamine) -> relational memory (example with casino, amazing experience) Punishment -> amygdala/cortical MTL -> remembering one thing (ex. Casino, losing money)

12.9.14. Ventral Visual stream (perirhinal cortex) Primary visual cortex - perirhinal cortex -> hippocampus Reactivation of same neural pattern -> feeling of familiarity

12.10. New Topic

13. Suppression & Repression of unwanted Memories

13.1. Through DL PFC -> reduces hippocampal activity

13.1.1. Similar responses in brains like when we inhibit motor responses

13.2. Emotional Memory

13.2.1. Avoiding to think about aversive scenes Less amygdala and hippocampus activity

13.3. Priming

13.3.1. When primed with several words and asked to look at some and to ignore others The no think group had similar response time to the showed and to be ignored words as it had to words they could not see

13.4. We can voluntarily suppress memories

13.4.1. Stop retrieval of memory Impairs later memory

13.5. PPl having difficulty in memory suppression (loss of executive control)

13.5.1. Attention deficit

13.5.2. PFC damage

13.5.3. Old age

13.5.4. Infancy

13.5.5. Depression

13.6. Catharsis

13.6.1. Emotion expressed through action

13.7. Abreaction

13.7.1. Emotion expressed through verbal action

13.8. Sleep paralysis

13.8.1. Recovered memory

13.9. Retrieval Induced Forgetting

13.9.1. Rp+

13.9.2. Rp-

13.9.3. Nrp

13.9.4. Study list with word pairs (categories-example -> fruit-banana, metal-copper), several examples for each category Cued test Fruit - or.... / Metal - co..... -> when tested after 5 min again for all the words -> best for Rp+, then Nrp, then Rp- -> diminished accessibility to Rp- items relative to Nrp items -> retrieval induced forgetting Practicing retrieval of words from categories strengthen memory -> weakens memory for untouched words of same categories

13.10. Andersons No think Paradigm

13.10.1. Word pairs ordeal-roach - memorize! Then he showed them first word and one group needed to think about the second, the other to avoid thinking about it Recall phase

13.11. Go/No go

13.11.1. Press button expect when you see X Executive function, retrieval

13.12. Childhood Amnesia

13.12.1. Few memories before 3-4 yrs

13.12.2. Till 7 yrs less then expected due to normal forgetting Why? Lack of cog abilities? (Reasoning, language) When young children are interviewed in the time after the event -> detailed memory -> accelareted Neurogenesis

13.12.3. Gammon article - Neurogenesis Kids interviewed at age 3,5,8 Significant event

14. Priming

14.1. Social psychology - Florida effect

14.1.1. Ex. Hearing the words, old, bones, slow, heart disease

14.1.2. Ppl go down a hallway slower

14.2. Repetition priming

14.2.1. Chair - chair

14.3. Conceptual/Semantic priming

14.3.1. Furniture - chair

14.3.2. Ex. Free associate to dream

14.3.3. Countries -self generated

14.4. Perceptual Priming

14.4.1. Picture Fragment: Seeing the whole pic before improves your ability to identify the camel when you only see the fragment

14.4.2. Word stem completion

14.4.3. Studying words and then being presented with cues

14.5. Mere exposure effect

14.5.1. Liking something just because you saw it before

14.6. Subliminal priming

14.6.1. Advertising

14.7. Identification

14.7.1. Easier to recognize a word if you saw the word before

14.8. Production

14.8.1. Free association priming New Topic

14.9. Bias in interpretation of ambiguous stimuli

14.10. Tachistoscopic presentation

14.10.1. Fast seeing something after being primed

14.11. Priming Amnesics

14.11.1. Needed to remember word list

14.11.2. Very poor on recall and recognition

14.11.3. When cued with word stems (fill out the blank) -> equal performance like healthy individuals

14.11.4. Results

14.12. Free associate to the word dream

14.12.1. Primed with random words

14.12.2. Primed with night related words More likely to come up with “night”

14.13. Conceptual Priming

14.13.1. Generate countries that come to your mind (Austria, Bulgaria,...)

14.13.2. Test: read presented words (includes: the countries you produced, other countries, unrelated words)

14.13.3. -> faster reading for the generated countries

14.14. Procedural learning

14.14.1. Weather Forecast task - Probabilistic Classification Learning Dependent on Basal Ganglia Task was to predict sunny or rainy weather according to card constellations with feedback Amnesics improved on task, but did not remember Parkinson and Huntington patients remembered but did not improve on task

14.14.2. Automatic execution of multi step process without conscious knowledge of how to do it Ex. Tower of Hanoi puzzle

14.14.3. SRT Task - Typing Healthy ppl get faster Parkinson patients not WHY?

14.14.4. Expertise Intuitive knowledge Fast Through much experience

14.14.5. OCD When procedural knowledge becomes compulsive

15. Working Memory

15.1. Change blindness

15.1.1. Switching from one pic to other

15.1.2. Not seeing the difference

15.2. Phonological Loop

15.2.1. Recalling last sentence

15.2.2. Without attention

15.3. Sensory Memory

15.3.1. Echoic

15.3.2. Iconic Experiment Letter Raster Tone 1. Condition 2. Condition 3. Condition delayed tone indicated

15.4. Short-term Memory

15.4.1. Ex. Serial Position Curve Primacy and Recency effect Primacy (LTM) Recency (WM) Task after last words -> Recency effect fades

15.5. Working Memory Capacity

15.5.1. Till 3 items -> almost perfect

15.5.2. Colored squares 2nd pic Did any square change?

15.5.3. Another condition: Digits 67 Same task but remember digit -> same result 100ms vs 500ms Time interval between pics 4/8/12 items -> no difference Cued square -> no difference in capacity Orientation & color -> same results One detail vs. several details -> same results Whole object, not parts of it -> chunking -> chunking

15.5.4. Decay & Interference -> Forgetting Absence of rehearsal

15.6. Mental rotation

15.6.1. More rotations from original -> longer to identify the right one

15.6.2. Independency for Spatial and visual Ex. One spatial and one visual task More interference for from spatial for the spatial task

15.7. Model of WM

15.7.1. Central executive Cog. Difficult tasks (rotation, letters backwords Control, chooses where is the focus

15.7.2. Phonological Keeping alive through rehearsal

15.7.3. Visual-spatial scratchpad Visual store

15.7.4. Episodic buffer -> LTM

15.7.5. Crystallized/Fluid systems

15.8. Evidence for WM

15.8.1. Figures Same or different Amnesic till 25 seconds same like healthy WM works fine, but when LTM needed MTL and Hippocampus for LTM

15.8.2. Face study Same of diff Till 14 seconds, amnesic and healthy were same -> remembered because of WM

15.8.3. Hippocampus is not needed for STM (or WM)

15.8.4. Episodic buffer Explains how Amnesics (without Hippocampus) can perform over WM time Temporary buffer for episodic memories

15.9. Brain areas

15.9.1. Perceptual areas in Cortex Parietal, occipital lobe,...

15.9.2. PFC and parietal cortex

15.10. Hippocampus and Association

15.10.1. Dragging pictures to right location

15.10.2. Amnesics with HC damage could identify the right object, but woulnd drag it to the right location -> association of object+location

15.10.3. HC not required for basic WM but for associations - binding

15.11. WM & Proactive interference

15.11.1. 3 Letters to remember

15.11.2. Counting backwords (20,19,18)

15.11.3. Recalling letters After 3 or 18 sec Longer break -> less memory -> decay?

15.11.4. If only one trail, did not matter if 3 or 18 sec -> proactive interference

15.11.5. Counting backwords (20,19,18)

15.12. WM transfers Information into and from LTM

15.13. Difference STM & WM

15.13.1. STM Storing information short time

15.13.2. WM Manipulating information

15.13.3. BOTH share the phonological loop

16. Consolidation & Interference

16.1. Consolidation

16.1.1. Rats Neural replay: Dialogue between Hippocampus and Neocortex

16.1.2. Learning routes: activated Hippocampus and parahippocampal Gyrus The more reactivation in the night -> better memory performance

16.1.3. Learning card pairs and rose smell When reexposed to smell during slow wave sleep -> increased hippocampus activity -> better memory

16.1.4. Sleep Sleep within 3 hours Sleep within 10 hours -> better memory in first group -> more hypocampus activation

16.1.5. Sleep and rose smell Memory task and exposed to rose smell Went to sleep and were reexposed to the smell during slow wave sleep

16.2. Forgetting due to

16.2.1. Interference

16.2.2. Decay

16.3. Natural time dependent decay

16.3.1. Sleep and control group both have forgetting, sleep -> stagnation, control -> keeps declining in memory Why? Decay in both groups, but interference only in awake group!

16.4. Interference

16.4.1. Proactive Previous impairs recent

16.4.2. Retroactive Recent impairs Previous

16.4.3. EXP: Cue overload Both conditions learn AB list, and then exp. group learns AC list, control CD When testing ppl on AB list Test AC

16.4.4. EXP2: Cue overload & Interference 3 groups learned the AB list on day 1 1 group learned AC right after wards on 1st day 2. Group learned AC right before retrieval of AB on 3. Group learned AC on 2. Day

16.5. Temporal Gradient of retrograde Interference

16.5.1. EXP: immediate, delayed list

16.5.2. No syllabus list, one group gets immediately a second List, the other one 6 minutes later

16.5.3. -> 6 minutes later -> better memory, less interference in memory consolidation

16.6. Post concussion retrograde amnesia

16.6.1. Loss of memory for after the hit and some time before

16.6.2. Trauma prevented consolidation

16.6.3. -> brain did not consolidate the memory. Actions for consolidation were stopped because of concussion

16.7. Alcohol and Benzodiazapines

16.7.1. After learning -> facilitation Prevents competition of memory

16.7.2. Before learning -> impairment Impairs attention and making new memories

16.8. Rat test with Anisomycin

16.8.1. Blocks protein synthesis

16.8.2. Blocks consolidation

16.9. Rat test - Anisomycin and insular

16.9.1. Drinking sweet water, followed by feeling sick, Anisomycin right after prevents rat from making this memory -> will drink water again

16.10. Massed vs spaced training

16.10.1. Spacing effect Less material vs. massed

16.10.2. Lag effect More time interval between repetitions

16.11. Improving Consolidation?

16.11.1. -> Neurofeedback EEG Visual feedback Theta activity

17. Episodic & Semantic Memory

17.1. Episodic can get lost -> leaving only semantic

17.1.1. Birthday party Only knowing the facts, not the story

17.2. Semantic can be enhanced with episodic

17.3. Semantic can influence our experience by influencing attention

17.3.1. Ex. Football game. Knowing the rules -> better memory of the whole story