Ethics

Ethics mindmap

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Ethics by Mind Map: Ethics

1. How to go about an ethical research

1.1. 1. describing the morality, moral system or moral behaviour

1.1.1. it is about carefully reading, studying and describing the different moral opinions and reasoning

1.1.2. Describing without judgement: descriptive, only state facts

1.1.2.1. moral judgements: prescriptive

1.2. 2. analyze research findings by applying special questions

1.2.1. it is necessary but insufficient at sloving moral problems

1.3. 3. formulate an ethical judgement based on the three major ethical theories

1.3.1. to decide what moral system percedes the other, need extra tools: the three ethical theories

1.3.2. When a moral problem arises we do not know which ethical theory is best, if you use one ethical theory and not the other, the answer could be the other way around

1.3.3. Three ethical theories on the left side

2. Three ethical theories

2.1. Utilitarianism

2.1.1. A branch of moral philosophy

2.1.2. It states that actions are morally good when they promote the increase of happiness in as many people as possible

2.1.2.1. This means selfish behaviour is unacceptable

2.1.3. They make moral calculations when they have to make a choice, what choice results in the maximum amount of happiness?

2.1.3.1. looks like a balance sheet

2.1.3.2. shows calculations of pros and cons

2.1.4. 2 points of criticism

2.1.4.1. utilitarianism only cares about the majority, the minority will suffer

2.1.4.2. they believe the end justifies the means, are we allowed to use bad means if we can do something good?

2.1.5. about the concequences of your actions

2.2. Ethics of duty

2.2.1. The experience of inner duty

2.2.1.1. it is not what others want you to do but what you want to do autonomously

2.2.1.2. If you do not follow your inner duty you will probably be haunted by your conscience

2.2.2. about the intention of your actions

2.2.3. Autonomy

2.2.3.1. acts out of conviction that if we want to do well we have to act upon duty

2.2.3.1.1. the duty is an internal voice to act according to moral principals

2.2.4. 2 points of criticism

2.2.4.1. does not take account of the circumstances of where a specific action is taking place

2.2.4.2. The character of a person does not get much attention

2.2.4.2.1. a good person is someone who is used to do good not a person that made a few good decisions

2.3. Ethics of virtue

2.3.1. Properties we like are called virtues

2.3.1.1. honesty

2.3.1.2. bravery

2.3.1.3. wisdom

2.3.2. as soon as you become aware of yourself you can change negative aspects of your character into virtues

2.3.3. When you develop veirtues these people play an important role

2.3.3.1. when you are young, parents, teachers and other wise people. You cannot control that you just need luck.

2.3.3.2. when you are older your friends, you can choose them so luck plays a less important role

2.3.4. Point of criticism

2.3.4.1. no attention for necessity of specified rules or how to act in certain situations

3. The concepts of ethics and morality

3.1. Ethics is a philosophical approach to questions regarding good and evil

3.1.1. about investigating and analyzing questions

3.1.2. there is not just one answer to these questions

3.2. moral statements

3.2.1. cannot be proven but sitill important

3.2.2. example: you should not lie

3.3. ethics is a philosophical faculty

3.4. about defending a moral point of view

3.5. in everyday life we use habits to deal with our issues but in these habits moral points of view are hidden

3.6. Values are what we consider important

3.6.1. we aim to reach them in our lives

3.6.2. norms are derived from values

3.7. Ethics is the study of morality, norms and values

3.8. It depends on the illumination angle if something is a moral subject or not

4. Morality and philosophy of life

4.1. A moral system is not an independent entity of ideas alone but it is part of a philosophy of life

4.2. During the Enlightment new visions arose in a societry promoted by the philosophers

4.2.1. with this new philosopphy of life a new moral system was formed as well, new norms and values took shape

4.3. In many contries different philosophies of life co-exist with their own moral system

4.3.1. conflicting moral systems when norms and values between groups differ

4.4. Moral sanctioning

4.4.1. a moral system that evolved through history and is claimed to be part of god's plan

4.5. Moral relativism is the view that right or wrong are based culturally