Psychosocial Development of Adolescents.

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Psychosocial Development of Adolescents. by Mind Map: Psychosocial Development of Adolescents.

1. Sexuality

1.1. Sexual Socialization

1.2. "Adolescents who take a virginity pledge but later break it are far more likely to become pregnant than adolescents who don't take such pledges." (Steinberg, p. 318)

1.3. Hormonal changes during adolescence increment the sex drive. Adolescence first experiences begin with exploration of body, such as masturbation. By the time adolescents reach high school, sexual experiences start to involve another individual. The progression starts with: Holding hands, making out, feeling breasts, feeling penis, feeling vagina, and it proceeds to intercourse or oral sex. In the past, many schools would teach “abstinence only” as being the best way to have adolescents not participate in sexual activities, avoid unwanted pregnancies, and avoid AIDS. Nonetheless, the best process through which adolescents are exposed to and educated about sexuality is sexual socialization. It is important that adolescents have adults in their lives, such as parents or teachers, that can educate and communicate with them often about sexuality and usage of contraceptives.

1.4. Let's Talk about Sex...Education. Teens Know Best | Thea Holcomb | TEDxSaltLakeCity

2. Identity

2.1. Who am I?

2.2. "As self-conceptions become more abstract, and as young people become more able to see themselves in psychological terms, they become more interested in understanding their own personalities and motivations"(Steinberg, p.221).

2.3. Identity as an issue in adolescence can be compared to the midlife crisis, which occurs during the middle age, in the sense that it is full of questions such as: Who one is? What purpose do you have in life? Where are you heading? It is a personal seeking for a sense of identity. “The extent to which individuals feel secure about who they are and who they are becoming” (Steinberg, p. 219). Many physical changes occur during adolescence, but there are also internal changes such as the way one processes thoughts, feelings, role in society, and how others view us.

2.4. Erikson's Identity vs. Role Confusion/Marcia Identity States

3. Achievement

3.1. Motivation

3.2. "There is a drop in students' mastery motivation as they transition from elementary into secondary school, in part because teachers themselves become more performance-oriented and less mastery-oriented during this time. Students who believe that their teachers value and encourage autonomy are less likely to show this decline in motivation." (Steinberg, p.339)

3.3. Achievement in adolescence is characterized by the motives, abilities, and interests that one develops since childhood. Achievement in school, for example, is related to how motivated one is about subjects in school. There is extrinsic motivations and intrinsic motivations. The first one brings joy when receiving rewards such as money, praise in the presence of others, or getting high grades that will later provide the opportunity to finish a career at a prestigious university etc. On the other hand, intrinsic motivations are those rewards that are internal. If you like playing the piano, you will probably practice a lot to achieve mastery at it because you like it. Other influences in achievement at school are: Parent’s values and expectations, motivation received from teachers, and either having a growth or fixed mindset.

3.4. Growth Mindset vs. Fixed Mindset

4. Autonomy

4.1. Independence

4.2. "Part of being autonomous involves being able to make independent decisions. The cognitive changes of adolescence also provide the logical foundation for changes in thinking about social, moral, and ethical problems."(Steinberg, p.248)

4.3. Autonomy is the sense of independence that one experiences. It does not necessarily develop during adolescence. Since an early age, toddlers try to manifest their need for independence by trying to do certain activities on their own. However, during adolescence the need for autonomy is manifested in three important ways: Emotional, behavioral, and cognitive. During the process of having a sense of autonomy, adolescents create more serious adultlike relationships with people that surround them such as family members and friends. They also develop the ability to become more independent at decision making. Also, adolescents hold on to their own values, opinions, and their own unique beliefs that characterize their sense of autonomy.

4.4. Autonomy in Adolescence

5. Intimacy

5.1. Friends

5.2. "Although experiences in the family are important for the initial development of social skills, experiences in friendships, especially during adolescence, contribute above and beyond benefits of good parenting to the development of social competence." (Steinberg, p.274)

5.3. Intimacy does not have do to with any sexual connotation. It is the establishment of secured and close friendships. According to theory of interpersonal development, early attachments with caregivers has an influence on how adolescents build relationships with their friends. Adolescents’ intimate friendships also affect future parenting. A secure attachment during childhood will be reflected in later relationships. During adolescence there is an emphasis on loyalty in friendship, support, and companionship. Looking at differences in intimate relationships between boys and girls, we see that girls are more sensitive and empathetic than boys, especially in knowing when their friends are depressed or comforting when they know their friends are depressed.

5.4. The Attachment Theory: How Childhood Affects Life