Communications and Negotiation

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Communications and Negotiation by Mind Map: Communications and Negotiation

1. Communication

1.1. What? process of passing and receiving the intended information from one to another

1.2. Why? exchange ideas/ views, resolve conflicts, negotiate, conclusion,agreement and the like

1.2.1. Why QS needs? QSs are involved in tenders, variations, payments, claims, contractual issues/ disagreement and disputes; without effective communication , QSs cannot proceed its duties

1.3. Importance ? Personal development (academic, interviews and the like), career development (sales, retaining client, routine works process)

1.4. Types? Verbal, Non Verbal and written/graphical communication

1.4.1. Verbal Communication- is the use of sounds and words to express yourself Phone Phone Calls, Face to face , Meetings /Presentations ,Voice mail, tele. and video conference, public speech

1.4.2. Non Verbal Communication using gestures or mannerisms (Appearance, Body language, eye contacts, etc.

1.4.3. Written/graphical communication- sending of messages, orders or instructions in writing through letters, circulars, manuals, reports, telegrams, office memos, bulletins, etc. It is a formal method of communication and is less flexible E-MAIL COMMUNICATION *has the same legal value than a letter and contracts can be unintentionally created by e-mail. *the Civil Evidence Act 1995 *very careful to the content and form of e-mail communication. They tend to be lax as they are perceived as informal. *Always communicate in a professional manner even if other parties don’t. *Choose your words carefully as your tone of voice or body language is not present to assist the *recipient to decode your message. *select the correct recipient and do not show others’ e-mail addresses without their consent. (Data Protection Act 2018)

1.5. Methods of Inter personal communications- Face to face Telephone Face to face Meetings Presentations Faxes E mail Voice mail Teleconferencing Video conferencing

1.6. What is the communication process?  Sending or transmitting information (channel) - o Speed, security, confidentiality o Efficiency o Cost o Reliability oTimely  Encoding information - Think of audience – level of knowledge, positions/ Approach.  Decoding and Receiving - It is important to verify that the information has been received and understood as intended.  Response and Feedback - (Always request a response or feed back)

1.7. Better way to communicate 1. Identify the messages that need to be sent 2. Determine your target audience for communication 3. Decide on your message format and timing 4. Draft your message and gain approval where required 5. Communicate your message, through communications procedures; a. Clearly identify your project stakeholders b. Identify your stakeholders communications needs c. Run any type of communications event to send out your message d. Ensure the right people receive the right information at the right time 6. Gather feedback and improve your communication processes

1.8. RICS Professional Information – Managing Communication (2013) 1. Who? – Identify, influence and manage the stakeholders you need to communicate with. – Create distribution lists. (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed – RACI Matrix) 2. What? – Taylor the message to achieve a clear goal / SMART objectives – ‘What does it have to do with me?’ 3. When and how? – Frequency of communication – Select appropriate media 4. 4. Awareness - Be aware of your client’s business and his key drivers. 5. Empathy - Try to align project’s objectives with individual objectives. Value people. 6. Understanding - Ask recipient to repeat message to verify understanding and act upon feedback. 7. Commitment - Be fully engaged and keep yourself up to speed. Make sure your team is pbriefed and have delegated authority. 8. Project identity and brand - Need to be able to describe the project / message in one memorable sentence.

1.9. How to improve communication?  Improve language skills  Select the correct media , method and type  Change your approach / attitude  Improve speaking abilities  Improve presentation skills  Learn to deal with multi cultural environment  Improve listening skills !

1.10. Efficient communication (Quick )  Efficient communication is the ability to deliver a clear message in the shortest amount of time.  Efficient communication may or may not be effective  Efficient communication is most likely to be effective if there is pre-established, mutual understanding between the message maker and the receiver. Effective communication The right information, at the right time, to the right people, With right impact

2. Negotiation

2.1. What does it mean by Negotiation? A dialog between two or more parties with an intent to coming to a mutually agreed solution, because each party has some thing that the other wants…’ What are the key words in negotiation? 1. Objective 2. Limitations (Limitation of authority) - Negotiator’s authority to make decisions, to accepts, to agree, etc. Play within boundary 3. Venue 4. Agenda - Prepare Proper agenda for conducting negotiation. Stick with agenda and time frame during the negotiation 5. Minutes of Meeting - Written proof of agreed and disagreed element during the meeting

2.2. Qualities for good negotiator 1. Focus on subject 2. Understanding of others point of view 3. Listening carefully 4. Communication skills 5. Tolerance – Patience 6. Open minded 7. Creative 8. Flexible 9. Ethical 10. Confident 11. Build rapport with others

2.3. Negotiation process *Setting strategy *Collecting and presenting evidence *Confirmation of agreement

2.4. Don't Do *Don’t see it as contest See it as joint effort, think win-win *Don’t bargain over positions Solve a problem jointly *Don’t attack the people Attack the problem *Don’t focus on different Focus on common interests *Don’t search for the one right solution

2.5. Do * See it as joint effort, think win-win *Solve a problem jointly *Attack the problem *Focus on common interests * Be creative, brainstorm multiple options to choose from

2.6. Types of approaches in negotiation? 1. Destructive negotiation or win-lose approach - (Win – Eg. Sharks) - Always attack/complain (every success to your side, other part loose) 2. Lose-lose approach (sabotage approach) 3. Compromise approach Lose-win approach- Don’t say anything against, always say ‘yes’ for every thing 4. Integrative negotiations or win-win approach – Assertive: (Win-Win – Eg: Dolphins) - Intelligent, Always look for acceptable results for both sides

2.7. Negotiation process 1. Negotiator should study and understand the matter (subject) going to be negotiated. 2. Check what are the strengths and weaknesses of both parties going to be negotiate. 3. What is the (Common Ground) Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA) to reach Win-Win situation. 4. If we managed to agree for planned ZOPA, what are the consequences of that agreement. 5. If we fail to agree for ZOPA, What is the Best Alternative to Negotiate Agreement (BATNA). 6. If we managed to agree for planned BATNA, what are the consequences of that agreement. 7. Find out what are the negotiation strategies to reach to out target. 8. Prepare Agenda for the negotiation meeting. 9. Conduct negotiation as per the agenda. 10. Record all discussed and agreed in the Minutes of Meeting 11. Implementation

2.8. Failure or barrier to negotiations? 1. Lack of Trust/integrity 2. Lack of communication 3. Lack of preparation 4. Lack of understanding the route cause 5. Lack of interest to both or either party 6. Ego 7. Fear 8. Rigidity or getting emotional 9. Die hard bargain 10. Etc

2.9. Negotiation Techniques 1. Establishing negotiation position 2. Setting objectives 3. Compiling supporting evidence 4. Establishing non-negotiable areas 5. Identifying areas of compromise 6. Assessing other side’s position

2.10. Negotiation Tools and Techniques 1. Setting the stage 2. Authority 3. Separate the people from the problem 4. Deadlines 5. Have a game plan 6. Take higher ground 7. Listen activity 8. Test the water (Buffer) 9. Speak with a purpose 10. Don’t be intimidated 11. Recess 12. Association/clout 13. Focus on interest, Not positions 14. Power/leverage 15. Eethical Tactics 16. Be creative