TRB BIM for Infrastructure (WORKING DRAFT)

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
TRB BIM for Infrastructure (WORKING DRAFT) by Mind Map: TRB BIM for Infrastructure (WORKING DRAFT)

1. Drivers and Challenges to BIM Adoption in Infrastructure

1.1. Design and construction firms: At 67%, lack of demand by clients is the top concern (McGraw-Hill 2012)

1.2. Owners: At 55%, poor internal understanding of BIM is the top reason for delaying use of BIM on projects (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2. BIM Adoption in Infrastructure

2.1. US

2.1.1. Highways & Bridges DOTs Indiana PennDOT WisDOT Projects (McGraw-Hill 2012) Massachusetts DOT (McGraw-Hill 2012) Overview of BIM Use in DOTs Chesapeake Roadway Projects by Clark Nexsen (McGraw-Hill 2012) Two intersection projects for the City of Chesapeake, VA - Combined design and engineering fees of less than $100,000. The team modeled the roadway and performed stormwater design analysis based on the model. Modeling the project improved visualization, enabled faster design reviews, enhanced coordination, ensured better constructability and increased collaboration. Case study by Fanning et al (2015) Comparison of two bridge construction projects by Kiewit Infrastructure- owner: Colorado DOT (CDOT) Highway Practices (MDOT: 3D Highway Design Model Cost Benefit Analysis ) Cost Benefit Analysis Other benefits ZOO INTERCHANGE, MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN (FHWA-HIF-13-050) 3D and 4D modeling it included a redesign of 14 bridges, 3 tunnels, 29 retaining walls, several entrance and exit ramps, 7 noise barrier walls, 54 sign structures, multiple utilities, and many other complex factors. saved approximately $9.5 million

2.1.2. Airports Use of BIM on Airports (McGraw-Hill 2012) Delta Air Lines redevelopment at JFK ($1.2 billion) The Green Build at San Diego International ($1.2 billion) Terminal Renewal and Improvement at Dallas/ Fort Worth ($2.3 billion) Airport Practice (ACRP SYNTHESIS 59) Sharing GIS resources (ACRP SYNTHESIS 59) CHALLENGES TO DATA SHARING Case Examples

2.1.3. Dams, Canals and Levees Use of BIM on Dams, Canals, and Levees (McGraw-Hill 2012) The Panama Canal

2.1.4. Water & Wastewater Facilities Use of BIM on Water and Wastewater Facilities (McGraw-Hill 2012) Arbennie Pritchett Water Reclamation Facility Des Moines Combined Sewer Solids Separation Facility

2.1.5. Rail Use of BIM on Transit Projects (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2.2. International

2.2.1. Case study project in Australia by (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016) BIM tools used: Autodesk AutoCAD Civil 3D, Navisworks, and 12D Model and Bentley MXRoad Upgrade of existing highway: expanding approximately 4.2 km of the highway from four to six lanes, construction of a central median along the length of the upgraded section, upgrading major intersections to allow for wider circles of turning movements, bus lanes, on-road cycling facilities, and a continuous pedestrian path. BIM Uses in Pre-construction Stage Engineering analysis Quantity take-off Clash detection Transportation management/ traffic impact simulation to predict the volume and saturation on the highway BIM Uses in Construction Stage Conduct field survey Quality management BIM Uses in Post-construction Stage Road management Geospatial issue tracking

2.2.2. Case study project in Shanghai, China by (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016) BIM tools used: Autodesk Revit, Navisworks, Robot Structural, Ecotect Analysis, and Infrastructure Modeler The new road was constructed for four lanes in each direction. The total length of the Chinese case study project was 500 m. Five existing roads were connected into, as well as provided access and egress to, the site including an existing highway. BIM Uses in Pre-construction Stage 3D Modeling Quantity take-off Clash detection BIM Uses in Construction Stage Track on-site construction progress BIM Uses in Post-construction Stage The Chinese case study was also the first infrastructure road project handled by the contractors involved. Some BIM uses were not applied, particularly in operation and maintenance following completion and handover of this case study project, such as the subsequent road management of traffic.

2.3. General Infrastructure (US, UK, Germany & France)

2.3.1. Organizations of all sizes foresee increasing their implementation of BIM to more than 50% of their infrastructure projects, but the size of the organization has implications for the pattern of high infrastructure BIM usage over the five year span.(McGraw-Hill 2012) Midsize organizations show the pattern of greatest growth, more than quadrupling the percentage of high-level implementers from 2009 to 2013, with the small-medium group expanding from 11% to 47% and medium-large organizations expanding from 13% to 58%. By 2013, small organizations will lead the way in high-level implementation, when almost two thirds (65%) predict they will be practicing at that level.

2.3.2. Almost half (46%) of the firms report using BIM on their infrastructure projects, up from 27% two years ago (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2.3.3. Organizations currently using BIM for infrastructure plan to use it on more of their infrastructure projects in the future. The percentage of those using BIM on more than 50% of their projects will grow from 30% now to 52% in just two years. (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2.3.4. 79% of current non-users feel positively about future adoption, with only 4% actually opposed. Therefore, education and best practices should be effective at accelerating adoption. (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2.3.5. 67% of all users report a positive ROI on their BIM investments, even higher than the 63% of BIM users for buildings who reported the same in 2009, demonstrating that the value achieved will drive growth in infrastructure as it has in the buildings sector. (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2.3.6. A/E firms and owners report the fastest adoption growth rates. (McGraw-Hill 2012) Two years ago, 73% of current A/E users were either not using BIM for infrastructure or using it at a low level. By 2013, the trend is reversed, with 78% expecting to use it on more than 25% of their projects. Owners go from 74% with low/no levels of use in 2009 to 84% using it on 25% or more of their projects by 2013.

2.3.7. Level of BIM implementation for infrastructure over time (McGraw-Hill 2012)

2.3.8. The use of BIM for infrastructure appears to be about three years behind its use on vertical construction. (McGraw-Hill 2012)

3. Resources

3.1. Journal - Conference Papers

3.1.1. Wu et al. (2017) Overview of BIM Maturity Measurement Tools,

3.1.2. Kassem et al. (2020) BIM: Evaluating tools for maturity and benefits measurement,

3.1.3. Cady, Philip D., Inflation and Highway Economic Analysis, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 109, No. 5, September 1983.

3.1.4. Gurevich, Ury, and Rafael Sacks. “Longitudinal Study of BIM Adoption by Public Construction Clients.” Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 36, no. 4, 2020, p. 05020008, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000797. Used Arup evaluation tool

3.1.5. Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. “How to Measure the Benefits of BIM — A Case Study Approach.” Automation in Construction, vol. 24, 2012, pp. 149–59, doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2012.02.008. Includes a table (Table 3) that has frequency of use

3.1.6. Love, Peter E. D., et al. “A Benefits Realization Management Building Information Modeling for Asset Owners Building Information Modeling for Asset Owners.” Automation in Construction, vol. 37, 2014, pp. 1–10.


3.1.8. Son, Junick, and Jongho Ock. “A Study on Measurement Method of BIM ROI in Architectural Design Firm.” Korean Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, vol. 21, no. 3, Sept. 2016, pp. 267–80, doi:10.7315/CDE.2016.267.

3.1.9. Newton, Leonard Kym, and Nicholas Chileshe. Awareness, Usage and Benefits of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Adoption-the Case of South Australian Construction Organizations. 2012, doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2352.3363.

3.1.10. Azhar, Salman. “Building Information Modeling (BIM): Trends, Benefits, Risks, and Challenges for the AEC Industry.” Leadership and Management in Engineering, vol. 11, no. 3, 2011, pp. 241–52, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)LM.1943-5630.0000127.

3.1.11. Won, Jongsung, et al. “Quantification of Construction Waste Prevented by BIM-Based Design Validation: Case Studies in South Korea.” Waste Management, vol. 49, 2016, pp. 170–80, doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2015.12.026.

3.1.12. Terreno, S., et al. “The Benefits of BIM Integration with Facilities Management: A Preliminary Case Study.” Computing in Civil Engineering 2015, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2015, pp. 675–83, doi:10.1061/9780784479247.084.

3.1.13. Bryde, David, et al. “The Project Benefits of Building Information Modelling (BIM).” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 31, no. 7, 2013, pp. 971–80, doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2012.12.001.

3.1.14. Walasek, Dariusz, and Arkadiusz Barszcz. “Analysis of the Adoption Rate of Building Information Modeling [BIM] and Its Return on Investment [ROI].” Procedia Engineering, vol. 172, 2017, pp. 1227–34, doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.02.144.

3.1.15. Khanzode, Atul, and Martin Fischer. “Benefits and Lessons Learned of Implementing Building Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) Technologies for Coordination of Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing (MEP) Systems on a Large Healthcare Project.” ITcon, vol. 13, 2008, pp. 324–42.

3.1.16. Staub-French, Sheryl, and Atul Khanzode. “3D and 4D Modeling for Design and Construction Coordination: Issues and Lessons Learned.” ITcon, vol. 12, 2007, pp. 381–407.

3.1.17. Fanning, Blaine, et al. “Implementing BIM on Infrastructure: Comparison of Two Bridge Construction Projects.” Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 20, no. 4, 2015, p. 04014044, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)SC.1943-5576.0000239.

3.1.18. Giel, Brittany K., and Raja R. A. Issa. “Return on Investment Analysis of Using Building Information Modeling in Construction.” Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, vol. 27, no. 5, 2013, pp. 511–21, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943-5487.0000164.

3.1.19. Love, Peter E. D., et al. “From Justification to Evaluation: Building Information Modeling for Asset Owners.” Automation in Construction, vol. 35, 2013, pp. 208–16, doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2013.05.008.

3.1.20. Lee, Ghang, et al. “D3 City Project — Economic Impact of BIM-Assisted Design Validation.” Automation in Construction, vol. 22, 2012, pp. 577–86, doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2011.12.003.

3.1.21. Stowe, Ken, et al. “Capturing the Return on Investment of All-In Building Information Modeling: Structured Approach.” Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 20, no. 1, 2015, p. 04014027, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)SC.1943-5576.0000221.

3.1.22. Chong, Heap Yih, et al. “Comparative Analysis on the Adoption and Use of BIM in Road Infrastructure Projects.” Journal of Management in Engineering, vol. 32, no. 6, 2016, p. 05016021, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000460.

3.1.23. Won, J., & Lee, G. (2016). How to tell if a BIM project is successful: A goal-driven approach. Automation in Construction, 69, 34-43.

3.2. Reports

3.2.1. FHWA-HIF-17-028: Addressing Challenges and ROI for Paperless Project Delivery (e-Construction) Final Report

3.2.2. FHWA-HIF-16-068: Addressing Challenges and ROI for Paperless Project Delivery (e-Construction) Technical Brief

3.2.3. ACRP Synthesis 59: Integrating Airport Geographic Information System (GIS) Data with Public Agency GIS (2014)

3.2.4. MDOT Report SPR 1680: 3D Highway Design Model Cost Benefit Analysis

3.2.5. NCHRP Report 866: Return on Investment in Transportation Asset Management Systems and Practices

3.2.6. NCHRP Reports 831 Volumes 1 & 2: Civil Integrated Management (CIM) for Departments of Transportation

3.2.7. AASHTO GIS for Transportation Symposium, BIM Workshop (April 13-17, 2020) Event was cancelled

3.2.8. FHWA-HIF-13-050: 3D Engineered Models for Construction – Understanding the Benefits of 3D Modeling in Construction. The Wisconsin Case Study

3.2.9. FHWA-HIF-19-075: e-Construction & Partnering Case Study – Minnesota and Iowa DOT Solutions for Capturing Asset Information during Construction

3.2.10. Effective Use of Geospatial Tools in Highway Construction

3.2.11. UK Strategy Paper for the Government Construction Client Group From the BIM Industry Working Group – March 2011

3.2.12. KTC-20-06/SPR19-576-1F: Construction-Ready Digital Terrain Models

3.2.13. Need to request drafts of ACRP Project 09-15, "Building Information Modeling (BIM) Beyond Design." Federal Highway Administration Identifying Data Frameworks and Governance for Establishing Future Civil Integrated Management (CIM) Standards. Federal Highway Administration Integrating 3D Digital Models into Asset Management (FHWA-PROJ-14-0014). Federal Highway Administration Construction Inspection for Digital Project Delivery

3.3. Market Research

3.3.1. McGraw-Hill, The business value of BIM infrastructure, Smart Market Report, McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012. Business Value of BIM for Infrastructure (A/E, Contractors, and Owners Perceptions) (McGraw-Hill 2012) At 77%, more contractors report a positive ROI than any other industry player. Top internal benefits for A/E firms and contractors Top internal benefits for owners BIM capabilities that benefits infrastructure projects Top benefits by phase Top benefits by project process Most important project factors that add value to BIM use Top current benefits Top benefits in 5 years Top investments Perceived ROI on Infrastructure BIM Investment Measuring ROI of BIM for Infrastructure Means to Improve ROI of BIM for Infrastructure Non-User Attitude toward BIM for Infrastructure AEC Perception: BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Competitors AEC Perception: BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Clients Owner Perception of BIM Usage for Infrastructure Why BIM is not being adopted for infrastructure? Factors influencing lack of BIM adoption for infrastructure Benefits that would encourage BIM adoption for infrastructure Most important factor of increasing BIM value on infrastructure projects Areas requiring assistance in implementing BIM for infrastructure

3.3.2. N.W. Young Jr., S.A. Jones, H.M. Bernstein, J.E. Gudgel, The business value of BIM, SmartMarket Report, McGraw Hill Construction, Bedford, MA, 2009, p. 52.

3.4. Presentations

3.4.1. Nettmann, M., BIM in infrastructure - case study: Swedish road projects, January 2018

3.4.2. BIM for infrastructure in Sweden, Sweden BIM Alliance, 2014

3.4.3. Stribeck, J., Slussen, drawingless design and production in a €1.2BN infrastructure all-in-BIM project, 2019.

4. BIM Assessment Approaches

4.1. Organizational Level

4.1.1. Organizational BIM Assessment Content Strategy BIM Uses Process Information Infrastructure Personell Scale 0 - Non-existant 1 - Initial 2 - Managed 3 - Defined 4 - Quantitatively managed 5 - Optimized

4.1.2. BIMe (Kassam 2020) Content Current version not publicly available, tailored to client per Bilal Succar Technology Process Policy Stages Organizational Scale Scale Initial (0) Defined (max 10) Managed (max 20) Integrated (max 30) Optimized (max 40)

4.1.3. BIM Compass Content Organization and Management Mentality and culture Information Structure and Information Flow Technology and Applications Scale Unknown

4.1.4. BIM Online Maturity Assessment Content Vision and Leadership - BIM vision and Knowledge of the senior management team of BIM Strategy - Strategy for BIM and collaborative working, and implementing strategies Culture - an organizational culture to support and embody the use of BIM Implementation - having BIM champion with right competency and knowledge responsible for leading the implementation of BIM and collaborative working People - Has your organization assessed the competence and knowledge level of your staff in relation to BIM and collaborative working? Training Provision - provision of BIM training plan for employees Information management process - Formal process of informational management to support BIM Information management: Common Data Environment - Using a common data environment to enable collaborative working Model authoring/analysis software-Using 3D information for design and construction Delivering 4D, 5D, and 6D outputs - ability to use 3D information and produce 4D, 5D, 6D outputs on projects in collaboration with its supply chain Procurement for BIM and collaborative working - using BIM execution plan on projects Project delivery and the BIM Execution Plan - clear process on the implementation of BIM execution plan Delivering asset information and COBie - producing electronic asset information collaboratively with its supply chain either associated with 3D-derived model outputs or in COBie Government Soft Landing - employing government soft landing routinely through early client and end-user engagement on most projects to support defined project outcomes Scale 4 option choices

4.1.5. SFT's BIM Compass Collaborative management Design Management Library objects Information management Information Exchange Soft Landing Security

4.1.6. CPIx BIM Assessment Form Content Using native CAD/BIM - Are you prepared to issue your native CAD / BIM format files? Work according to BIM Standard - Do you work to a CAD / BIM Standard? Having a BIM process - Do you produce a BIM model as an iterative process? Having a level of information (LOI) for BIM models - Do you understand the ‘Level of Information’ required at each of the project delivery stages? Having a level of detail (LOD) - Do you understand the ‘Level of Detail’ required at each of the project delivery stages? Maintenance for the CAD/BIM tools - Are all your CAD / BIM Tools covered by a yearly maintenance agreement? Training - Do you train your staff In the use of your CAD / BIM tools? BIM certification - Can you provide CAD / BIM related qualifications and CPD Certification for proposed team members? BIM coordination - How do you carry out spatial co-ordination using CAD / BIM? BIM uses Copyright - What are the issues of IP rights and ownership of the BIM models? BIM vision and strategy for future Scale Qualitative

4.1.7. NBIMS Capability Maturity Model Content Data Richness - Identifies the completeness of the building Information Model from initially very few pieces of unrelated data to the point of it becoming valuable information and ultimately corporate knowledge about a facility Life-cycle views - Views refer to the phases of the project and identifying how many phases are to be covered by the BIM. One would start as individual stove pipes of information and then begin linking those together and taking advantage of information gathered by the authoritative source of the information. This category has high cost reduction, high value implications based on the elimination of duplicative data gathering. The goal would be to support functions outside the traditional facility management roles, such as first responders. Roles or Disciplines - Roles refer to the players involved in the business process and how the information flows. This is also critical to reducing the cost of data re-collection. Disciplines are often involved in more than one view as either a provider or consumer of information. Our goal is to involve both internal and external roles as both providers and consumers of the same information so that data does not have to be re-created and that the authoritative source is the true provider of the information. Change Management - Change Management identifies a methodology used to change business processes that have been developed by an organization. If a business process is found to be flawed on in need of improvement, one institutes a “root cause analysis” of the problem and then adjusts the business process based on that analysis. Since this is related to the following item, business processes it should come after it. Business Process - The business process defines how business is accomplished. If the data and information is gathered as part of the business process then data gathering is a no cost requirement. If data is gathered as a separate process then the data will likely not be accurate. The goal is to have data both collected and maintained in a real time environment, so as physical changes are made they are reflected for others to access in their portion of the business process. Timelines/Response - While some information is more static than other information it all changes and up to the minute accuracy may be critical in emergency situations. The closer to accurate real time information you can be the better quality the decisions that are made. Some of those decisions may be life saving in nature. Delivery Method - Data delivery is also critical to success. If data is only available on one machine then sharing can not occur other than by email or hard copy. In a structured networked environment if information is centrally stored or accessible then some sharing will occur. If the model is a systems oriented architecture (SOA) in a web enabled environment the nentcentricity will occur and information will be available in a controlled environment to the appropriate players. Information assurance must be engineered into all phases. Graphical Information - Often the starting point is a non-graphical environment. The advent of graphics helps paint a clearer picture for all involved. As standards are applied then information can begin to flow as the provider and receiver must have the same standards in place. As 3D images come into play more consumers of the information will have a common view and a higher level of understanding will occur. As time and cost are added then the interfaces can be expanded significantly. Spatial Capability - Understanding where something is in space is significant to many information interfaces and the richness of the information. Energy calculations must know where the heat gains will come from, first responders need to know where water supplies and utility cutoffs are located in relation to the facility. Information accuracy - Having a way to ensure that information remains accurate Is only possible through some mathematical ground truth capability. Having a mathematical product will also allow for better management by supporting difficult to game metrics. These numbers can be used for occupancy, information collection completeness and overall inventory calculations. Interoperability / IFC Support - Our ultimate goal is to ensure interoperability of information. Getting accurate information to the party requiring the information. There are many ways to achieve this, however the most effective is to use a standards based approach to ensure that information is a form that it can be shared and products are available that can read that standard for of information. Scale: 1-10 level

4.1.8. Maturity Matrix: Self Assessment Questionnaire Content Governance Organization Integration Digital Transformation Capable Owner Scale 3 choices questions

4.1.9. Supply Chain BIM Capability Assessment Content Organization Standards Cost Software Model Use Scale Unknown

4.1.10. Vico BIM Scorecard Content Portfolio and Project Management Cost Planning Cost Control Schedule Planning Production Control Coordination Design Team Engagement Scale 4 choices questions

4.2. Project Level

4.2.1. Arup BIM Maturity Measures content Project Structural, Mechanical, Electrical, Public Health, Facades, Geo-technics, Lighting scale 0 - non-existent 1- Initial 2- Managed 3- Defined 4- Measured 5- Optimizing

4.2.2. BMAT Content Assessment and Need Procurement Post Contract Award Mobilization Production AIM (asset information model) Maintenance Performance Management Information Security Information Quality Collaborative Working Scale 4 choices questions

4.2.3. VDC Scorecard Content Performance Technology Adoption Planning Scale Unknown

4.2.4. Dstl BIM Maturity Measurement Tool Content BIM Procurement / Employer Engagement BIM Delivery Data, Verification and Validation Collaborative working Visualisation / Stakeholder Engagement Discipline based model authoring Construction Model based estimating and change management Scale Unknown

4.2.5. BIM Working Group BMAT Not publicly available

4.2.6. BIM Excellence Online Platform In organizational level

4.3. Team Level

4.3.1. BIMe Not public

4.4. Individual Level

4.4.1. BIMe Content Technical Operation Functional Implementation Administration Supportive Research and Development Managerial Scale 0 - None 1 - Basic 2 - Intermediate 3 - Advanced 4 - Expert

5. Notes

5.1. Smaller project focus as well as large projects

5.2. which data will be particularly more or less difficult to collect for monetizing benefits?

5.2.1. Quantitive Performance Indicators/Metrics

5.3. Example table: This table was used for the NCHRP Asset Management ROI study but it would be great if we could produce something similar for our BIM ROI study. For instance, are most case studies in the literature considering a base case of ‘business as usual’ practice with no BIM investment compared with an investment case of purchasing a specific level of BIM capabilities? Or are case studies comparing a base case of some BIM investment versus an investment case of improved BIM capabilities? Or something else?

6. Case Study Projects - Documented

6.1. Organizational

6.1.1. Transport for London Documented in Gurevich and Sacks (2020)

6.2. Project

6.2.1. D3 Project in Seoul, Korea

6.2.2. Ashley Overlook - see ROI study results

7. Use Cases for BIM in Infrastructure

7.1. Project Delivery

7.1.1. 3D engineering analysis (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.2. Design clash analysis (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.3. 4D construction progress visualization (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.4. 5D cost analysis (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.5. Construction safety analysis (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.6. Live and dead load structural analysis (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.7. BIM integrated site setting out or surveying (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.1.8. Tracking onsite construction progress (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.2. Asset Management

7.2.1. Transportation management (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

7.3. Organized by Phase

7.3.1. Based on different stages (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016) Pre-construction Site setting out Site layout and logistics Project scheduling Material management Engineering analysis Construction Construction inspection Human resource management and progress tracking Quality assurance Safety management Cost control Constructibility reviews Post-construction Planned maintenance System analysis Asset management Emergency plan Transportation management

8. ROI

8.1. BIM Benefit Categories

8.1.1. Asset Management by Owner Cost Savings - Organization Direct Inspection Costs Direct Maintenance Costs (excluding staff time) Direct Operations Costs Reduced paper, printing, and distribution (postage) (FHWA-HIF-17-028 ) Staff time savings Reduced Data Entry Time Reduction in Design Time for in-house designed projects Maintenance Information Retrieval Time Programmatic Information Retrieval Time Increased employee productivity and efficiency (Terreno et al 2015) Greater efficiency on the job (Terreno, S., et al. 2015) Reduce Safety Code Compliance Costs Ancillary Organizational Benefits Better emergency preparedness (Terreno, S., et al. 2015) increased security of documents (FHWA-HIF-17-028 ) Improved collaboration Improved business growth ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013) Firm growth (Bryde, David, et al. 2013) Improved learning for younger staff (McGraw-Hill 2012) More detailed strategic planning with holistic considerations (Terreno, S., et al. 2015) Improved hiring and controlling subcontractors (Bryde, David, et al. 2013) Enhanced reputation and level of public trust improved change management (Terreno, S., et al. 2015) Improved asset management (Fanning, Blaine, et al. 2015) improved sustainability management (Terreno, S., et al. 2015) Improved profit margin for project team members (Bryde, David, et al. 2013)

8.1.2. End User (Road User) Asset End User Benefits Comfort management (e.g. by promoting improved productivity) (Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2014) Fuel and material savings (e.g. by facilitating less travel and waste) (Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2014) Clearer Facility Management requirement definition for design & construction (Terreno, S., et al. 2015) Better monitor and manage related health and safety issues for users (Fanning, Blaine, et al. 2015) Reduction in emissions yielding improved health (no source to date)

8.1.3. Project Delivery (Design & Construction) Project Cost Savings Shorter Delivery Time Design Process Efficiency Construction Process Efficiency Reduced field conflicts Improve Visualization for Planning Improved safety Reduced waste Project Delivery Method Cost Savings Clear Process Definition Asset Turnover Efficiency Ancillary Project Benefits Increased quality Improved risk management Improved collaboration & coordination Improved sustainability (Newton and Chileshe 2012) Improved energy efficiency (Walasek, Dariusz, and Arkadiusz Barszcz. 2007) Allows for use of information in maintenance (Barlish et al 2012) Improved competitiveness (Newton and Chileshe 2012)

8.2. BIM Investment Categories

8.2.1. Organizational and Asset Management Recurring Human Direct Non-Recurring Human Direct Design Office Transition Costs (FHWA-HIF-13-050) Development Costs (FHWA-HIF-13-050) (Direct)

8.2.2. Project Delivery Recurring Human Direct Non-Recurring Human Direct

8.3. BIM Return Categories

8.3.1. Organizational Improved collaboration with owner/design firms (McGraw Hill 2014) Enhanced organizational image (McGraw Hill 2014)

8.3.2. Project Productivity gain (Autodesk 2007) Reduced printing use costs (Becerik-Gerber and Rice 2010) Reduced document shipping costs (Becerik-Gerber and Rice 2010) Reduced travel costs (Becerik-Gerber and Rice 2010) Reduced approved change orders (Becerik-Gerber and Rice 2010; Hoffer 2014; Giel 2009; Lee et al 2013) Reduced claims and disputes (Becerik-Gerber and Rice 2010) Reduced correcting errors and omission (Becerik-Gerber and Rice 2010) Improved information control (Qian and Ang Yu 2012) Improved communications (Qian and Ang Yu 2012) Reduced error and omissions (McGraw Hill 2014; Qian and Ang Yu 2012) Reduced rework (McGraw Hill 2014; Qian and Ang Yu 2012; Hoffer 2014) Improved Collaboration (Hoffer 2014) Reduced RFIs (Giel 2009; Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012) Reduced project delay (Giel 2009) Clash detection (Azhar 2011) Reduced Contractor costs (Barlish and Sullivan 2012) Reduced direct costs (Sen 2012; Lee et al 2012) Reduced indirect costs (Sen 2012; Lee et al 2012) Duration improvement (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4. Quantitative Performance Indicators/Metrics

8.4.1. Quality control (rework reduction) ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013)

8.4.2. On-time completion (reduction in delay) ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013)

8.4.3. Overall cost (cost reduction) ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013)

8.4.4. Units (square feet/meters)/person hour ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013)

8.4.5. Dollars/unit (square feet/meters)/person hour ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013)

8.4.6. Safety (reduction in lost person-hours) ( Love, Peter E. D., et al. 2013)

8.4.7. Change orders as a % of standard costs (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.8. Avoidance log and associated costs (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.9. RFI quantities in Non-BIM vs. BIM (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.10. Offsite prefabrication man-hours from contractors (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.11. OCIP insurance headcount dollar savings % off site hours (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.12. Reconciliations of savings from contractors using BIM (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.13. Reconciliations of savings from designer using BIM (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.4.14. Actual durations as a % of standard duration (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012)

8.5. BIM ROI Study Results

8.5.1. Organizational

8.5.2. Project Building D3 Project in Seoul, Korea Ashley Overlook - Holder Project (Azhar 2011) Progressive Data Center - Holder Project (Azhar 2011) Raleigh Marriott - Holder Project (Azhar 2011) GSU Library- Holder Project (Azhar 2011) 1515 Wynkoop - Holder Project (Azhar 2011) HP Data Center - Holder Project (Azhar 2011) NAU Sciences Lab - Holder Project (Azhar 2011) A Public Sports Facility Project in South Korea - A three phase framework to evaluate ROI (Lee and Lee 2019) Aquarium Hilton Garden Inn Project (Azhar 2011) Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia (Azhar 2011) The Mansion on Peachtree, Atlanta, GA (Azhar 2011) Case studies by (Barlish, Kristen, and Kenneth Sullivan. 2012) Results from the workshop by Stowe, Ken, et al. (2015) Three case studies from a commercial CM firm (Giel, Brittany K., and Raja R. A. Issa. 2013) Malta House, (Walasek, Dariusz, and Arkadiusz Barszcz. 2007) Infrastructure Case Studies

9. Phase 1 Report

9.1. 1) the current status of BIM adoption within infrastructure in the United States and other countries

9.2. 2) focused processes within transportation infrastructure requirements that can benefit from BIM

9.3. 3) information from previous studies related to ROI for BIM adoption in various construction industry sectors and across multiple phases of project delivery and asset management

9.4. 4) recommendations and lessons learned from the literature

10. Potential Case Study Criteria, Projects and Approach

10.1. Case Study Selection Criteria

10.2. Potential Case Study Projects

10.2.1. Organization US South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) Indiana DOT RFID Tagging International

10.2.2. Project US Foth Infrastructure & Environment, LLC International Lebuhraya Borneo Utara Sdn Bhd Harbour Road 2 Project, Jakarta, Indonesia Woolgoolga to Ballina, New South Wales, Australia

10.2.3. Potential Sources BSI Awards BE Inspired Awards DBB Individual Contacts

10.3. Case Study Questions

11. Software

11.1. BIM Software Suitable for Transportation Projects (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016)

11.1.1. Autodesk Incorporated series AutoCAD Map 3D; Storm and Sanitary Analysis; ReCap; InfraWorks; AutoCAD Civil 3D; Bridge Module; Rail Layout Module; River and Flood Analysis Module; AutoCAD Utility Design; and Robot Structural Analysis Professional

11.1.2. Bentley System Incorporated series Power Rail Track; Power Rail Overhead Line; Power InRoads; Power GEOPAK; MXROAD; PowerCivil; RM Bridge; LEAP Bridge Enterprise; Bentley PowerRebar; LEAP Bridge Steel; gINT software; InspectTech; ProjectWise; and AssetWise (Chong, Heap Yih, et al. 2016); Bentley MicroStation and MX (FHWA-HIF-17-028: Addressing Challenges and ROI for Paperless Project Delivery (e-Construction) Final Report)

11.1.3. Tekla and Trimble Incorporated series TEKLA Structures; TEKLA BIMSight; TEKLA Field3D; TRIMBLE Feedback; TRIMBLE Locus; TRIMBLE DMS; TRIMBLE Eservices; TRIMBLE Webmap; and TRIMBLE Communication Networks

11.2. FHWA-HIF-17-028: Addressing Challenges and ROI for Paperless Project Delivery (e-Construction) Final Report (2017)

11.2.1. plan set review and preparation Adobe Acrobat products, Autodesk AutoCAD and Civil 3D, Bentley MicroStation, Geopak, InRoads, and MX, Bluebeam Revu

11.2.2. electronic bidding and contract award Bid Express, Expedite Bidding Software, DocuSign

11.2.3. project collaboration Doc Express, OnBase, ProjectSolve, ProjectWise, SharePoint

11.2.4. project construction management and mobile devices AASHTOWare Project, Mobile Inspector by Infotech, Headlight by Pavia Systems, Masterworks by Aurigo, Primavera P6, Android tablet, Apple iPads, Windows tablets.