## 1. Teach vocabulary using realia and demonstration

### 1.1. Demonstration effect.

## 2. Relate math problems and vocabulary to prior knowledge and background

### 2.1. Prior knowledge.

## 3. Apply problems to daily life situations

### 3.1. Applying problems.

## 4. Use manipulatives to make problems concrete

### 4.1. Solving problems concrete.

## 5. Encourage drawings to translate and visualize word problems.

### 5.1. Drawing math concepts

## 6. Have ELL/special education students pair with typical students for computer/cooperative activities

### 6.1. -Collaborative work

### 6.2. -English language and facilitate inclusion

## 7. Encourage children to think aloud when solving word problems, and have students give oral explanations of their thinking, leading to solutions.

### 7.1. Polya’s method 4 steps:

### 7.2. Read and understand the problem.

### 7.3. generated strategy

### 7.4. Carry out their strategy/plan,

7.4.1. -Look back/check solution

## 8. Have students write original word problems to exchange with classmates.

### 8.1. Games

### 8.2. cooperative groups.

## 9. Explain directions clearly, and repeat key terms.

### 9.1. teachers sensitive to language difficulties

## 10. Encourage students to follow the four-step problem-solving process.

### 10.1. verbalizing the concepts, processes to solve problems.

## 11. Realize that not all math notations are necessarily universal.

### 11.1. Math concepts that are based on money and time are not universal.

## 12. Group students heterogeneously during cooperative learning.

### 12.1. classrooms that emphasize individual performance, teacher-centered learning,

## 13. Make interdisciplinary connections to what students are learning in math.

### 13.1. The more opportunities that a student has to connect new knowledge with existing knowledge increases the generalization potential.

## 14. Make cultural connections for students when teaching mathematics.

### 14.1. he classroom in which students from multicultural backgrounds display the origins of math concepts from their cultures

## 15. Rewrite word problems in simple terms.

### 15.1. These problems center around concepts and vocabulary such as words of a technical nature such as:

15.1.1. denominator

15.1.2. quotient

15.1.3. coefficient

15.1.4. rational

15.1.5. column

15.1.6. table