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Adolescence by Mind Map: Adolescence

1. Intimacy

1.1. Intimacy refers to relationships characterized by self-disclosure, trust and concern.

1.2. The development of intimacy is also stimulated by cognitive changes, which allow for more sophisticated understandings of relationships.

1.3. Intimate relationships are facilitated by social changes of the period, which provide for more opportunities for adolescents to be alone with each other.

1.4. In Sullivan's view, the main challenge of adolescence is to integrate an already established need for intimacy with the emerging need for sexual contact in a way the does not engender excessive anxiety.

1.5. Attachment theory now dominates the field of intimacy relationships in adolescence.Individuals who enjoyed a secure attachment to their caregiver during infancy develop healthier and more secure models for relationships as they grow older.

1.5.1. There is also evidence that interpersonal development is cumulative. Positive experiences in early family relationships contribute to social competence, which facilitates the development of intimate relationships with peers and romantic partners.

1.5.2. With development, adolescents place more emphasis on trust and loyalty as defining features of friendship, and become more responsive to their friends' needs.

1.5.3. Sex differences in the expression of intimacy is pronounced. Male friendships contain intimacy, but intimacy is a much more conscious concern for girls than it is for boys, in part because of sex differences in the way they are socialized.

1.5.4. New types of relationships are added to the adolescents social work without replacing previous ones. Many adolescents have platonic friendships with other sex peers. These other sex friendships set the stage for the emergence of romantic relationships later on. Boys may profit psychologically from other sex friendships more than girls. Social activities with the other sex begin in early adolescence with group activities that bring males and females together, proceed to casual dating, and later progresses to serious involvement with a steady romantic partner. Although early intense dating appears to have adverse effects on adolescents mental health, a moderate degree of dating after roughly age 15 is associated with positive development Adolescents that have supportive and satisfying relationships at home are more likely to have high quality friendships and romantic relationships. Conversely, adolescents who have been exposed to high levels of conflict or violence in their family are more likely to experience violence in their own dating relationships.

2. Sexuality

2.1. Physical and hormonal changes of puberty increase sex drive, change appearance and permit reproduction

2.2. Cognitive changes of adolesence result in increased capacity to understand and think about sexual feelings

2.3. New social roles also assist in esablishing sexual relationships

2.4. Four aspects of positive sexual development are 1) accepting one's changing body, 2) accepting feelings of sexual arousal, 3) understanding that sexual activity is voluntary and 4) practicing safe sex

2.5. Cultures vary their approach to sexual socialization, and fall into 3 categories - 1)restrictive, 2) semirestrictive or 3) permissive

2.5.1. Although we view industrialized society as permissive, many more societies are far more lenient about sex. In America, by most indicators, our attitude about adolescent sex are semirestrictive. Important changes in attitudes toward permarital sex occured during the 1970's. Most teenages today believe premarital sex is okay as long as it takes places within the context of a loving, intimate relationship Sexual intercourse, once delayed until early adulthood, is now part of the typical adolescent's experience, regardless of ethnic of socioeconomic background. 1/3 of 14 year olds and 2/3 of 18 year olds have had sexual intercourse. These numbers are increases from past The most substantial change in recent decades has been in the sexual activity of females. In general, sexual activity during adolescence does NOT carry psychological risks adults associate with it. Some evidence suggests that sexual activity before age 16 is more common among teenages in a single parent household, and is associated with higher rates of problem behaviors. Discussion of psychological effects of adolescent sexuality must differentiate between male and female experiences. Males tend to have a recreational attitude towards sex, while females tend to have an attitude of love and intimacy. About 6% of males and 13% of females report having same sex attractions and/or activities during adolescence. The higher rate of behavioral problems observed within this group is attributed to their harrassment by peers and adults. A majority of teenagers report having been sexually harassed in school, and a significant minority of young people, particularly females, are forced to have sex against their will. Adolescents who are sexually abused show higher rates of anxiety, fear, academic difficulties and depression. They are also far more likely to engage in risky behavior, and become pregnant as teenagers. Most experts agree that the primary reason so few adolescents use contraceptives regularly is that it requires the sort of long term planning thath many young people tend to avoid. Also, many adolescents are not educated about safe sex, and often they seldom anticipate having intercourse until they are sexually active on a regular basis. Because of their erratic use of condoms, several million sexually active adolescents contract an STD per year. Cases of HIV have been on the rise among adolescents. The US has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the developed world, about 750K annually. It is believed this is often unintended pregnancy, rather than a conscious choice to have a child at such a young age.

3. Psychosocial Problems in Adolescence

3.1. Vast majority of adolescents do not develop psychological or social problems during the adolescent years, but a significant minority do.

3.1.1. Its important to distinguish between experimentation and enduring patterns of behavior, between problems that develop during adolescence and those that don't, and between problems that are transitory and those that persist into adulthood.

3.1.2. Serious problem behvior during adolescence is rarely a direct consequence of the changes of adolescence itself.

3.1.3. Experts distinguish among 3 categories of problems in adolescence:substance abuse, internalizing problems and externalizing problems There is a great deal of covariations or comorbidity amond different psychosocial problems during adolescnce within and across these categories. ADolescencts who engage in delinquency are more likely than their peers to be truant, to engage in precocious seuxal behavior, and to commit acts of aggression - a pattern that has been termed problem behavior syndrome Adolescents who are high in negative affectivity are more likely to suffer from depression, feel anxious, and report other symptoms of distress. Among modern adolescents, alcohol and cigarettes are still the drugs of choice, although a substantial number of young people have experiemented with marijuana Experts have expressed particular concern about the use of substances early in adolescence, especially in light of new brain research that indicates the potnential for addiction and for other harmful phsical consequences is significanty greater when the irst use of substances occurs before age 14. There are 3 general categories for externalizing problems: 1) conduct disorders, 2) aggression and 3) juvenile offending. Antisocial behavior takes 3 forms: authority related conflicts, covert antisocial behavior and overt antisocial behavior. Within each of these 3 types, there are predictable patterns of progression from less serious to more serious forms. Although the juvenile crime rate has declined considerably from its peak in the early 1990s, adolescents still account for a disproportionately high number of crimes, including violent crimes. Depression is the most common internalizing disorder of adolescence, afflicting as many as 25% of individuals by the time they enter adulthood. Significant sex differences in depression emerge in early adolescence that are maintained throughout adulthood. Females are more likely to be depressed than males, although there is disagreement as to why. Nearly 10% of adolescent girls and 5% of adolescent boys have attempted suicide, and twice as money have seriously thought about killing themselves. Depression is the result of an interacting set of environmental conditions (especially stress) and individual predispositions, or diatheses (including biological and cognitive predispositions). Depression during adolescence can be successfully treated through medication and psychotherapy, which are especially effective when combined. For some adolescents, exposire to chronic or severe stress can result in psychological or physical difficulties, but for others, the very same sources and levels of stress do not seem to be associated with upset and all. In general, the effect of stress is exacerbated if it is accompanied by other stressors, if the adolescent lacks sufficient internal or external resources, or if the adolescnet has poorly developed coping skills. Coping with stress by trying to change the source of stress (if it is controllable) or to adapt to the problem (if it is not) is generally more effective than coping through distraction or avoidance.