History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. 50,000 yrs ago Cave Paintings

1.1. Cave paintings were first form of graphic communications

1.2. colorful representations on the inside of cave walls

1.3. Lascaux

1.3.1. Had to close from the CO2 emitted from the tourists

1.3.2. Most famous cave painting site

1.4. 3 reasons why they were created

1.4.1. story telling

1.4.2. religious superstition

1.4.3. instruction

1.5. Paint created by mixing water, plant juice, animal blood, hematite, charcoal, and soil

1.6. Themes of cave paintings

1.6.1. large animals

1.6.2. abstract patterns

1.6.3. tracings of human hands

1.7. Brushes

1.7.1. animal hair

1.7.2. sticks

1.7.3. leaves

1.7.4. small stones

1.8. French made Lascaux II to satisfy the tourists

1.9. Altamira cave is in Spain

1.9.1. Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria discovered the site

1.10. Oldest known cave painting site is Chauvet Pont d’Arc

1.10.1. Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, Jean Marie Chauvet discovered the site

2. Cuneiform

2.1. Helps track business transactions

2.1.1. Theocratic culture ruled by priest king

2.1.2. skilled artists vases, bowls, etc.

2.1.3. music was an important part of life

2.2. Sumer is where cuneiform was made

2.3. Written on clay tablets

2.4. Began as pictograms

2.5. Wedges shaped language

3. Sumerians

3.1. Theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

3.2. skilled artists

3.2.1. vases

3.2.2. bowls

3.3. music was an important part of life

3.4. Year round agriculture

3.5. Invaded by Akkadians

4. Egyptians and Hieroglyphics 6th Century BC

4.1. Egypt

4.1.1. Great Pyramids

4.1.2. Tombs and Temples Walls of temples decorated to show respect

4.1.3. Carved and painted images on every wall and surface

4.2. Heiroglyphics

4.2.1. combination of logographs and alphabet elements Logograms representing ideas and objects

4.3. Military leaders became scribes so they could communicate during battle

4.4. Papyrus is substrate made from reed

4.5. Books of The Dead

4.5.1. Instructions and spells to help them find their way into the afterlife

4.6. Napoleon Bonaparte

4.6.1. Invaded Egypt in 1798

4.7. Slab with inscriptions was discovered when the French were building forts

4.8. Rosetta Stone

4.8.1. Contained Ancient Greek, Demotic, Egyptian

4.8.2. Resides in the British meuseum

4.9. Jean Francois Champollion

4.9.1. Deciphered the hieroglyphics on the stone

5. Creation of the Phonetic Alphabet

5.1. Theories for the origin

5.1.1. Direct variation of heiroglyphics

5.1.2. Ties wit cuneiform

5.1.3. Independent creation

5.2. Letters started with consonants

5.3. Success of the alphabet

5.3.1. Trade culture of the Phoenician merchants spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North America and Europe

5.4. 1st widespread script

5.5. Allowed to be used in many languages

5.5.1. Taught people how to write

5.6. Rigid, formal

5.6.1. Quicker, informal

5.7. Serifs

5.7.1. Finishing off strokes

5.7.2. Originated from carvings of word into stone

5.7.3. Contributed to type design by adding little hooks to the tips of letters

5.7.4. Baseline Line on which most letters sit Descender is where baseline sits Contributed to type design with typography and penmanship

6. Codex and Illuminated Manuscript

6.1. Scrolls

6.1.1. Long continuous piece of papyrus, separate sheets glued together at the edges

6.1.2. Simply rolled up, wooden rollers at each end

6.1.3. Reader must read the text in the order it was written

6.2. Roman handwriting added lowercase letters and punctuation

6.3. Codex

6.3.1. Covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

6.3.2. Advantages against the scroll Compactness Sturdiness Ease of reference Opened flat to any page Title could be written on the spine

6.3.3. Church used codex format on bibles and scriptures

6.4. Christianity adopted early Bible

6.5. Parchment

6.5.1. Hair and fat was removed, and skin was smoothed out

6.5.2. Replaced papyrus because it was more durable

6.6. Vellum

6.6.1. Finer quality of parchment made from skins of young calves

6.7. Dark Ages

6.7.1. time period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance

6.8. Monastic monks became scribes of the church

6.9. Illuminated Manuscript

6.9.1. Books

6.9.2. Illumination refers to the borders, illustrations, and ornamentation added to each page of the text

6.9.3. Reserved for religious texts to use during Christian masses

6.9.4. Printing press caused the decline of illuminated manuscripts

6.10. Natural quill pens were used for highly intricate and detailed work

7. Gutenberg Press

7.1. Johannes Gutenberg

7.1.1. Credited with the intro of oil, based ink Went to see Johann Fust to invest in his inventions Agreement was to repay Fust in 5 years, or else he keeps the tools

7.2. Technology

7.2.1. Screw type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

7.3. Gutenberg's father was a goldsmith

7.4. First movable type system was made in China

7.5. Carved from wood

7.6. Matrix was a softer, copper bar

7.7. Paper

7.7.1. Developed in 105 AD Ts'ai Lun

7.8. Bible was the first book to be printed

7.9. Fust and Schoeffer took credit for the invention

7.10. Communication impacts

7.10.1. Perfected script

7.10.2. Books made more rapidly

7.10.3. Cost of books decreased

7.10.4. Trade began to flourish

7.10.5. Economies became stronger

7.10.6. Art and science began to flourish

7.10.7. Info could be shared locally and around the world

7.10.8. Demand grew

7.11. Caxton credited for first book in English

7.12. Boston Newsletter is first news weekly

7.12.1. John Campbell published it

7.13. 4 major printing processes today

7.13.1. Relief printing

7.13.2. Intaglio

7.13.3. Porous

7.13.4. Lithography

8. Linotype Machine

8.1. Clephane looking for easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies

8.2. Christopher Sholes

8.2.1. Invented the only typewriter that became commercially successful

8.3. Clephane approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help with the machine

8.4. Linotype machine allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

8.5. Name came from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once

8.6. First machine installed in New York Tribune

8.7. Keyboard

8.7.1. 90 Characters

8.7.2. No shift key

8.7.3. arrangement of keys was based on letter frequency

8.7.4. Black Keys represented lowercase letters

8.7.5. White keys represented uppercase letters

8.7.6. Blue keys represented punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fix width spaces

8.8. Matrix is a mold

8.9. Slug is the assembled line of type then cast as a single piece

8.10. Justified line of text by using a space band

9. Computers

9.1. Mark series created by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

9.1.1. Created for gunnery and ballistic communications in US Navy

9.2. Univac

9.2.1. First commercial computer John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly created it

9.2.2. Universal Automatic Computer

9.3. IBM

9.3.1. International Business Machines

9.3.2. IBM701 EOPM Computer Fortran is what it stands for

9.4. Space Wars

9.4.1. First computer game

9.5. Douglas Engelbart

9.5.1. Invented the computer mouse He wanted an easier way to navigate through the computer


9.6.1. First internet

9.7. Intel 4004

9.7.1. first chip processor Intel produced it

9.8. Floppy disk is first memory disk

9.8.1. IBM

9.9. Robert Metcalfe and Xerox developed first ethernet

10. History of Photography

10.1. Camera obscura used to observe light

10.1.1. optical; device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

10.1.2. shrunk to the size of a portable box

10.2. Photography

10.2.1. Derived from Greek words lighting and writing

10.3. Joseph Niepce created first successful photograph

10.4. Louis Daguerre created first photographic process

10.4.1. Daguerreotype Exposed a light sensitive sheet which created a direct positive image

10.5. William Fox Talbot

10.5.1. Invented first Callotype process Image was exposed to light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

10.6. Wet Collodian Process

10.6.1. Glass plates were used for the negative to capture the image when exposed to light

10.7. Richard Maddox

10.7.1. Dry Plate Process glass plates were coated with the gelatin colorless water soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue

10.8. Eastman Kodak Company

10.8.1. Brownie

10.9. James Clerk Maxwell

10.9.1. Took first color photograph

10.10. Edwin Land

10.10.1. Instant photography Instantly taking a picture and having it ready straight away

10.11. Zoopraxiscope

10.11.1. a device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion