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1.1. A cave painting is a beautiful, detailed, and colorful representation found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings.


1.2.1. Story telling

1.2.2. Religion/Superstition

1.2.3. Instruction to teach about hunting techniques

1.3. Lascaux

1.3.1. Lascaux was found in 1940 by four teenage boys. The cave paintings are about 16,000 years old.

1.4. Altamira cave

1.4.1. Altamira cave was found by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter, Maria. Most of the paintings at Altamira have a red hue caused by the red clay in the soil. The cave paintings are about 19,000 years old.

1.5. Chauvet pont d'arc

1.5.1. Chauvet pont d'arc is the oldest know cave painting site. It was found by Eliette Brunell Deschamps, Christian Hillaire , and Jean Marie Chauvet in 1994.


2.1. Cuneiform began as a series of pictographs to keep track of business transactions. Over time it evolved into more abstract symbols and the number of characters grew and cuneiform evolved into a wedge shaped language.

2.2. How the Sumerians made impressions on the clay surface which cuneiform was written on.

2.2.1. 1. First they wet the clay

2.2.2. 2. Then they formed the clay into flat surfaces.

2.2.3. 3. They used a stylus made form reads to make impressions into the clay surface.

2.2.4. Finally they laid the tablets in the sun to dry.


2.3.1. They were a theocratic culture ruled by a priest king.

2.3.2. They were skilled artisans that created pottery.

2.3.3. Music was an important part of their life.

2.4. SUMER

2.4.1. Sumer was considered the cradle of civilization because that is were cuneiform was created.

2.4.2. The Sumerians settled in the region of Sumer because the ground their was fertile and they were many bodies of water around there.

2.4.3. Sumer was eventually invaded by the Akkadians.


3.1. Hieroglyphics are a formal writing system that contained a combination of logo graphic and alphabetic elements.

3.1.1. Hieroglyphics were written on the inside of temples honoring the gods. Priest had to be scribes because it was their job to write and read inscriptions on the walls of the temples.


3.2.1. 1. First they crossed wet reeds criss cross over each other.

3.2.2. 2. Then they flattened and dried them.

3.2.3. 3. Finally they were rubbed with stones until the surface became smooth.

3.3. Scholars believe that the Sumerian concept of expressing words into writing influenced Egyptian hieroglyphics.

3.3.1. The world hieroglyphics is derived from the greek words "HIERO" which means sacred, and "GLYPHIC" which means engraving or writing.


3.4.1. When the French invaded Egypt in 1798, they found a slab with inscriptions on it while building a fort.

3.4.2. There were three languages written on the slab, Egyptian hieroglyphics, Greek, and Demotic.

3.4.3. This slab, the Rosetta Stone, was finally deciphered by Jean Francois Champollion. The Rosetta Stone is now in the British Museum, where it has been since 1802.


4.1. Origins of the Phoenician alphabet:

4.1.1. 1. Direct variation of Hieroglyphics

4.1.2. 2. Ties with Cuneiform or other languages.

4.2. The Phoenician alphabet is based on the principle that one sign represents one spoken word.

4.2.1. All the letters in the Phoenician alphabet starts with consonants.

4.3. The Phoenician alphabet was so successful because of their trade culture, merchants spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe.

4.3.1. Even the Greek alphabet, which is considered the world's first true alphabet, adapted the Phoenician letter forms.

4.3.2. The Phoenician alphabet had long term effects on the social structures of civilizations that came in contact with it. Because of the alphabets simple appearance, it disintegrated the class divisions between royalty and common man.


5.1. A codex is a covered and bound collection of handwritten pages.

5.2. Before the codex there were scrolls

5.2.1. How scrolls were constructed and rolled: 1. Some scrolls were constructed with one long piece of papyrus. 2. Other scrolls were made up of separate sheets glued together at the edges. There are two ways scrolls were rolled: 1. Some scrolls were just rolled up 2. Some scrolls had wooden rollers at the end

5.2.2. The drawback to the scroll was that it only allowed for sequential usage.

5.3. The codex had many advantages over the scroll.

5.3.1. The codex is more compact, is more sturdy, and easier of reference that the scroll.

5.3.2. The codex is also more portable, and easy to organize in libraries.

5.4. Parchment is a substrate made from animal skin use in the codex.

5.4.1. How parchment was made: 1. First all the hair and fat of the animal skin was removed and the skin was smoothed and stretched. 2. Then the skin was soaked in water and calcium and flour and salt were added. 3. Finally the skin was stretched out, flattened, and dried.

5.5. Christianity adopted the codex format for the Bible and the Scriptures.

5.5.1. Monks became the scribes of the church and wrote illuminated manuscripts. Illuminated manuscripts are books written by hand and adorned with elaborate illustrations by monks. Monks would add illustrations, borders, and ornamentation to each page of text.


6.1. A printing press is a hand press where ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable handset letters held within a wooden frame.

6.2. Johannes Gutenberg introduced modern book printing.

6.2.1. Gutenberg's father was a merchant and goldsmith. Watching his father at work and his love of reading is what motivated Gutenberg to find a better way to produce books.

6.2.2. Gutenberg is also credited with the introduction of oil-based ink.

6.3. The world's first movable type system was developed in China. It was carved from wood.

6.3.1. Gutenberg felt that metal type was better than the wooden type because it cold be reproduced more quickly once a single mold could be made. How Gutenberg created his metal type: 1. He used an alloy of lead, tin and antimony. 2. He melt the alloy at low temperatures and cast them well in the die. 3. He then hammered a hard metal punch into a softer copper bar, creating a matrix. 4. Finally, the piece of type is cast by filling the mold with molten metal.

6.3.2. Paper was also first developed in China by Cs'au Lun, a Chinese court official.

6.4. When Gutenberg saw John Fust to invest in his inventions, he made a agreement that is Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years then Fust would get the press, tools, and materials.

6.4.1. The first book to be printed was the Bible but Fust took credit for the printing because after 5 years when Gutenberg could not repay the loan he got the press, tools, materials, and all the Bibles that Gutenberg had printed. It wasn't till after Gutenberg's death that Fust admitted it was Gutenberg that printed the Bibles.

6.5. The Gutenberg Press impacted communication in many ways.

6.5.1. 1. It perfect script and made it easier to read.

6.5.2. 2. Books were made more rapidly

6.5.3. 3. The cost of books decreased, allowing more people to buy them. As demand grew, the population became more literate.

6.5.4. 4. People wanted books in their own language and of a greater variety.

6.5.5. 5. Book trade began to flourish as well as industries such as papermaking

6.5.6. 6. Economies became stronger.

6.5.7. 7. Art and science began to flourish which led to the beginning of the renaissance.


7.1. A typewriter is a manual machine with keys for typing print like characters one at a time on paper.

7.1.1. Christopher Sholes invented the only typewriter that became commercially successful.

7.1.2. Clephane, who was looking for ways to improve the printing process, tested Shole's typewriter.

7.2. The Linotype machine allows type to be set mechanically rather than by hand.

7.2.1. The first Linotype machine was installed in printing office of the New York tribune. The newspaper industry changed radically, making it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis.

7.3. The name Linotype comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once.

7.4. It had a 90 character keyboard, no shift key so uppercase letters had separate keys from lowercase letters,. The linotype machine had the same alphabet twice, with black keys on the left, white keys on the right, and blue keys in the middle.

7.4.1. Black keys were for lowercase letters.

7.4.2. White keys were for uppercase letters.

7.4.3. Blue keys were for punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.

8. History of photography

8.1. Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph in 1827.

8.2. The name photography originates from Sir John Hershel.

8.3. The Daguerreotype process

8.3.1. Daguerre invented the first practical photographic process. The Daguerreotype 1. The image was exposed to a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image. 2. This process reduced the exposure time to a half-hour.

8.3.2. 1. The image was exposed to a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image.

8.3.3. 2. This process reduced the exposure time to a half-hour.

8.4. The Calotype process

8.4.1. William Fox Talbot invented the Calotype

8.4.2. The Calotype process exposed the image to a light-sensitive paper producing a paper negative.

8.4.3. The Caloype process is the basis of our modern photographic process because from the negative a unlimited amount of duplicates could be made.

8.5. The wet Collodion Process

8.5.1. Also know as the wet plate process.

8.5.2. The wet collodion process was where glass plates were used for the negative to capture the image when exposed to light.

8.5.3. It reduced the exposure time to two or three seconds.

8.6. The Dry plate negative process

8.6.1. Richard Maddox invented the dry process.

8.6.2. The Dry plate negative process was where the glass plates were coated with gelatin.

8.7. Color photography

8.7.1. James Clerk Maxwell took the first color photograph.

9. History of computers

9.1. Konrad Zuse invented the first freely programmable computer.

9.2. Mark computers

9.2.1. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the Mark computers.

9.2.2. Mark computers were created for the Navy gunnery and ballistic calculations.

9.3. The Univac

9.3.1. The Univac was the first commercial computer.

9.3.2. John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly designed it.

9.4. IBM701 EDPM computer

9.4.1. IBM developed the IBM701 EDPM.

9.5. Spacewar

9.5.1. Spacewar was the first computer game.

9.6. The mouse

9.6.1. Douglas Engelbart invented the computer mouse.

9.6.2. The mouse was called the mouse because of its tail and ear on the side.


9.7.1. ARPANET was the first internet

9.7.2. It was developed to protect the flow of military information and communication.

9.8. MS-DOS

9.8.1. The MS-DOS was introduced by Bill Gates and microsoft. Bill Gates and Microsoft also introduced the windows operation system in response to apple's operation system.

9.8.2. MS-DOS was a computer operation system which was package with the IBM PC.

9.9. Lisa computer

9.9.1. Apple introduced the apple lisa in 1983. Apple also introduced the Apple Macintosh computer in 1984.

9.9.2. Lisa was the first personal computer with a GUI.