History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. 30,000 yrs ago CAVE PAINTINGS

1.1. representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

1.1.1. Lascaux Cave

1.1.1.1. most famous cave painting site

1.1.1.1.1. closed to tourists because the carbon dioxide from the damaged the paintings

1.1.2. 3 reasons why created?

1.1.2.1. instructional

1.1.2.2. religious/supersticous

1.1.2.3. story telling

1.1.3. oldest know cave painting site Chauvet Pont d'arc

1.1.4. Altimara cave in Spain

1.1.4.1. discovered by Marcelino Sanz and his daughter Maria

1.1.4.2. most paintings had a red hue from the red clay soil used to make the make

1.2. painted on the cave walls

1.2.1. paint was made form water, plant juice, animal blood, charcoal, soil, & hemotite

1.2.2. brushes were made by putting together sticks small stones and animal hair

1.3. first way to communicate with images and symbols

2. Cuneiform

2.1. worlds first written language

2.1.1. written on clay tablets

2.1.1.1. wedge shaped stylus to make impressions on the clay

2.1.2. created to help keep track of business transactions

2.2. created by the Sumerians

2.2.1. began as a series of pictographs

2.3. cuneiform evolved overtime because pictographs became more absract and the number of characters continued to grow

3. Hieroglyphic

3.1. invading armies discovered hieroglyphics in Egypt- 6th century Egypt

3.1.1. in 1798 Napolean Bonaparte the emperor of France invaded Egypt

3.1.1.1. the French discovered a slab with inscriptions on it while building a fort in Rosetta

3.1.1.1.1. this stone had 3 languages on it

3.1.1.1.2. the "Rosetta Stone" now resides in the British Museum

3.1.1.1.3. Jean Francois Champollion finally deciphered the hieroglyphics on this stone

3.2. formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.2.1. logograms are visual symbols representing ideas or objects

3.2.2. believed to be influenced by cuneiform

3.2.3. Ancient Egyptians believed it was import to communicate information about religion and government

3.2.3.1. Scribes

3.2.3.1.1. students and military leaders were taught and trained to be scribes so they could write and communicate

3.2.3.1.2. Priests also became scribes to read and write the instructions on the walls and on papyrus for rituals to please the gods and godesses

3.3. derived from two Greek words HEIRO meaning sacred and GLYPHIC meaning engraving or writing

3.4. great pyramids, tombs and temples were carved with heiroglyphics

3.4.1. to show respect

3.4.2. hieroglyphics were also written on papyrus-a substrate made form reeds native to Egypt

4. Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. theories

4.1.1. 1. a direct variation of heiroglyphics

4.1.2. 2. ties with cuneiform or and independent creation

4.2. principle

4.2.1. one sign represents one spoken sound

4.2.2. letters start with consanents

4.3. trade culture of the Phoenician merchants spread the use of alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe

4.4. simple

4.4.1. allowed it to be used in multiple languages

4.4.2. disintegrated class divisions between royalty and common man could use it

4.5. Greek alphabet

4.5.1. considered world's first true alphabet

4.5.1.1. phoenician alphabet only represented consanents

4.5.2. most notable change was the adaptation of Phoenician letterforms

4.6. serifs

4.6.1. a finishing offstroke

4.6.2. originated with carvings of words into stone

4.7. baseline-the line where most letters sit

5. Gutenberg Press

5.1. Johannes Gutenberg

5.1.1. working with his father and his love of reading inspired him

5.1.2. also credited with the introduction of oil-based ink

5.2. Gutenberg wanted to work with metal type

5.2.1. he made a metal lead alloy that would melt at low temperatures but be durable in the press

5.3. matrix

5.3.1. a hard metal punch is hammered into a softer copper bar, creating a matrix

5.4. first book to be printed- Bible

5.5. impacted communication in many different ways

5.5.1. made script easier to read

5.5.2. made books faster

5.5.3. current information could be shared locally and around the world

5.5.4. cost of books decreased and more people bought them

5.5.5. people became more literate

5.5.6. book trade and papermaking began to flourish

5.5.7. art and science became more popular, and that led to the beginning of the Renaissance

5.5.8. economies became stroner

5.6. a hand press where ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a wooden frame

6. Linotype Machine

6.1. allowed operators to set it mechanically rather than by hand

6.2. 90 characters

6.3. no shift key

6.4. uppercase and lower case letters are on seperate keys

6.5. produces an entire line of type at once

6.5.1. slug- assembled line of type cast as a single piece

6.5.2. matrix-a mold for a letter form

6.5.3. mechanically

6.6. three different colored keys

6.6.1. black keys- lowercase letters

6.6.2. white keys-uppercase letters

6.6.3. blue keys-punctuation, digits, small capital letters, fixed width spaces

6.7. first linotype machine was installed at the New York Tribune

7. Photography

7.1. camera obscura

7.1.1. the 4th century camera obscura was used as a way to observe light

7.1.2. it is and optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

7.1.3. the camera obscura room from the 1500s was a darkened room with a convex lens attacthed to the wall

7.1.4. in the 17 & 1800s it changed to the size of a portable box

7.2. first successful photograph

7.2.1. Joesph Niepce

7.2.2. 1827

7.3. Louis Daguerre created the first practical photographic process called the Daguerreotype

7.3.1. he exposed a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image and put it in salt

7.3.2. Calotype was another process created by William Fox Talbot

7.3.2.1. the image was exposed on to a light-sensitive paper, creating a paper negative, duplicates could be made

7.3.3. wet collodion rocess(wet plate process)

7.3.3.1. credited to Archer

7.3.3.1.1. glass plates were used for the negative to capture the image when exposed to light

7.3.4. dry plate process

7.3.4.1. richard maddox

7.3.4.1.1. he developed a way of using gelatin for the photographic plates instead of glass

7.4. Eastman Kodak created the Brownie, first camera out to the general public in 1900

7.5. zoopraxiscope

7.5.1. device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

8. Computers

8.1. Konrad Zuse credited with inventing the freely programmable computer

8.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

8.2.1. designed the Mark series of computers

8.2.1.1. used for navy gunnery and ballistic calculations

8.3. first commercial computer

8.3.1. univac

8.3.1.1. designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly

8.3.1.2. Universal Automatic Computer

8.4. IBM

8.4.1. created IBM701 E0PM computer

8.4.2. stands for International Business Machine

8.4.3. made first single chipped microprocessor

8.4.4. introduced first floppy disk

8.5. Apple

8.5.1. introduced apple lisa in 1983

8.5.1.1. it was different because it had GUI

8.5.2. introduced the more affordable home computer in 1984

8.6. Bill Gates/ Microsoft

8.6.1. introduced MS-DOS

8.6.1.1. a computer operating system that was packaged with the IBM PC

8.6.1.1.1. PC-stands for personal computer

8.6.2. introduced the windows operating system in response to Apple's operating system

8.7. first high level programming language

8.7.1. fortram

8.8. first computer game

8.8.1. spacewar

8.9. computer mouse

8.9.1. more user friendly tool instead of pointing at the screen

8.9.2. invented by Douglas Engelbart

8.10. first internet

8.10.1. ARPNET