SELL Overview

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SELL Overview by Mind Map: SELL Overview

1. Main findings

1.1. LLS used the most

1.1.1. Listening 80% Listen to talk shows on the radio, watch TV shows, or see movies in the target language. 65% Imitate the way native speakers talk. 80% Pay special attention to specific aspects of the language; for example, the way the speaker pronounces certain sounds 70% Listen for key words that seem to carry the bulk of the meaning. 70% Focus on the context of what people are saying 75% Ask speakers to repeat what they said if it wasn’t clear to me

1.1.2. Speaking 70% Practice saying new expressions to myself 90% Ask questions as a way to be involved in the conversation. 60% Look for a different way to express the idea, like using a synonym

1.1.3. Writing 65% Plan out in advance how to write academic papers, monitor how my writing is going, and check to see how well my writing reflects what I want to say 65% Try writing different kinds of texts in the target language (e.g., personal notes, messages, letters, and course papers). 65% Take class notes in the target language as much as I can 70% Use reference materials such as a glossary, a dictionary, or a thesaurus to help find or verify words in the target language. 60% Find a different way to express the idea when I don’t know the correct expression (e.g., use a synonym or describe the idea) 63% Try to get feedback from others, especially native speakers of the language.

1.1.4. Reading 75% Find reading material that is at or near my level. 65% Guess the approximate meaning by using clues from the context of the reading material. 65% Use a target language dictionary to see how words are defined by means of other target language words

1.1.5. Vocab 60% Pay attention to the structure of the new word. 55% Review words periodically so I don’t forget them 55% Make an effort to remember the situation where I first heard or saw the word or remember the page or sign where I saw it written 70% Practice using familiar words in different ways

1.1.6. Grammar 83% Take notes when my teacher explains a new grammar structure (e.g. I write down the meaning and the usage of the structure). 74% Ask the teacher to repeat if I do not understand his/her explanation of a new structure, 74% Ask my friends for help if I do not understand my teacher’s explanation 79% Examine the mistakes which my teacher has marked in a written assignment, and try to correct them. 53% Try to practice a new grammar structure in speaking or writing.

1.2. LLS used the least

1.2.1. Listening 40% Listen in on people who are having conversations in the target language to try to catch the gist of what they are saying 35% Look for associations between the sound of a word or phrase in the new language with the sound of a familiar word. 40% Prepare for talks and performances I will hear in the target language by reading some background materials beforehand 30% Pay attention to when and how long people tend to pause 35% Make educated guesses about the topic based on what has already been said 35% Draw on my general background knowledge to get the main idea

1.2.2. Speaking 55% Think about how a native speaker might say something and practice saying it that way 15% Make up new words or guess if I don’t know the right ones to use.

1.2.3. Writing 55% Practice writing the alphabet and/or new words in the target language. 40% Review what I have already written before continuing to write more. 40% Wait to edit my writing until all my ideas are down on paper 58% Revise my writing once or twice to improve the language and content.

1.2.4. Reading 25% Plan out in advance how I’m going to read the text, monitor to see how I’m doing, and then check to see how much I understand.

1.2.5. Vocab 20% Look at meaningful parts of the word (e.g., the prefix or the suffix) to remind me of the meaning of the word. 40% Make an effort to use idiomatic expressions in the new language. 35% Try topics even when they aren’t familiar to me. 0% Use flash cards in a systematic way to learn new words

1.2.6. Grammar 44% Try to classify it under a group of similar things (e.g. verbs, tenses, etc) when I learn a new grammar structure 68% Ask my teacher questions about his/her corrections of my grammatical mistakes. 68% Determine the grammar structures that I have trouble with and make an effort to improve them. 26% Write e-mails, letters or compositions in order to practise newly learnt grammar structures.

2. Discussion of findings

2.1. LLS used the most

2.1.1. LIstening

2.1.2. Speaking

2.1.3. Writing

2.1.4. Reading

2.1.5. Vocab

2.1.6. Grammar

2.2. LLS used the least

2.2.1. LIstening

2.2.2. Speaking

2.2.3. Writing

2.2.4. Reading

2.2.5. Vocab

2.2.6. Grammar

3. Main Features

3.1. a. strategy use involves specific action by learners

3.2. b. strategy use involves conscious effort

3.3. c.strategy use is problem-oriented

3.4. d.strategy use is self-directed

3.5. e. strategy use involves the many aspects- cognitive, metacognitive, social and affective

3.6. f. strategy use sometimes cannot be observed sometimes

3.7. g. strategy use is flexible

3.8. h. strategy use can be taught

3.9. i. open to influences

3.10. j. the ultimate goal of LLS use is for communication competence

4. Pedagogical implications

4.1. a. raise teachers & learners' awareness on possible strategies available

4.2. b. teachers assume the role as facilitator

4.3. c. teachers to train LLS to language learners

4.4. d.students become active, self-directed learner

4.5. e. students develop autonomy in learning

4.6. e. students become independent learner