Chapter 4-7

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Chapter 4-7 by Mind Map: Chapter 4-7

1. .

2. Cliques & Crowds

2.1. Cliques are small groups of friends. Crowds are larger and more vaguely defined groups that are based on reputation.

2.2. Cliques begin as same sex groups, gradually form into larger and mixed-sex groups. This is where romantic relationships can form and the group begin to break down, due to the start of more couple-based activities.

2.3. With crowds it becomes more differentiated and more permeable during high school and their influence becomes less salient.

2.4. Most high schools have relatively the same "crowd names" such as: jocks, populars, brains, nerds, and toughs. Which can be mapped out by how involved they are in school, and how involved they are in the peer culture.

3. CH.4: Changes within family relationships

3.1. Sparked by the biological, cognitive, and social maturation of the adolescent; by the changes parents face at mid-life.

3.2. Adolescents gain more increasingly more power and becoming increasingly more assertive.

3.3. Parents use different styles to parent such as, authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and indifferent.

3.3.1. Authoritative shows responsive and demanding. Authoritarian shows demanding but not responsive. Indulgent shows responsive but not demanding. Indifferent shows neither demanding nor responsive.

3.3.2. Adolescents from authoritative homes measures better psychological adjustment, whereas adolescents from indifferent homes fare worst.

3.3.3. Parents-adolescent interaction show that the healthiest families are those that permit the adolescent to develop a sense of autonomy while staying emotionally connected to their family.

3.4. Divorce, Single parenthood, Remarriage, Pverty

3.4.1. Immediately after a divorce the adolescent has exposure to marital conflict, disrupted parenting, and family stress.

3.4.2. It is the nature of the relationship between adolescents divorced parents, and not which he/she lives with, that makes a difference.

3.5. Family Relations with Adolescent

3.5.1. Number one most influenced factor for adolescent adjustment is the quality of their relationship at home.

3.5.2. As young adults, there is still a need for love, support, and guidance of others who genuinely care about their development and well-being.

4. Bullying doesn't only happen in isolated areas, but can be taken advantage in the middle of large crowds without anyone really noticing or paying close attention. (Video clip attached here)

5. Chapter 6: Schools

5.1. Social Organization

5.1.1. Small schools are more effective than large ones. The transition from elementary school onto secondary school can be difficult for some students that have academic and behavior problems during transitioning.

5.1.2. There is a mismatch between the impersonal and rigid environment of the most schools and the developmental needs of young adolescents who are interested in forming relationships and gaining independence.

5.1.3. Tracking reveals that the academically rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Students who are placed in one or more advanced tracks or in high ability groups in classrooms achieve more than those in lower tracks, in part because the quality the quality of instruction in the higher tracks is superior.

5.2. Classroom Climate

5.2.1. Two thirds of all American high school graduates go directly to some form of postsecondary education, but many college students drop out after their first year, because of a mismatch between their needs and the school environment.

5.2.2. High schools do not serve non-college bound adolescents very well. One third of the country's adolescents completed their formal adduction without adequate preparation for the world of work they hope to enter.

5.2.3. One of the main problems of high school students who don't go to college after graduation is because of the lack of relation or link between the world of school and work during high school. *LINK ATTACHED*

5.3. School & Adolescent Development

5.3.1. Five characteristics for good schools are: They emphasize intellectual activities, they have committed teachers who are given autonomy, they are well integrated into their community, they have a high proportion of classrooms in which students are active participants in their education, and they have teachers who have received specialized training in teaching adolescents.

5.3.2. Attending school does contribute to adolescents' intellectual development. Although, it has been noted from contemporary secondary schools that most schools are not structured to promote adolescents' psychosocial development. This is due to their focus on conformity and obedience and their lack of encouragement for creativity, independence, and self-reliance.

5.3.3. The characters of the school could be a result in which different things affect adolescents. College bound students in the more advanced tracks have markedly different experiences than do non-college-bound students in the lower tracks.

6. Peer groups are the one of the most important influence on adolescent development, compared to previous eras, where it wasn't as pervasive.

6.1. .

6.1.1. This could have to do a lot with the rise of separated youth culture that is hostile toward adult values.

6.1.2. Others look at it as a positive and valuable contribution to the educational role played by peer groups.

6.2. .

6.2.1. It is, although, essential for individuals educated mainly outside the family and for those who are governed by universalistic norms.

7. Popularity

7.1. Divided into two different types: Sociometric- how much someone is liked, usually has to do with good social skills, and Perceived- how much status someone has.

7.2. Unpopular adolescents tend to fall into three categories: Aggressive Adolescents who have difficulties controlling their emotions, Withdrawn Adolescents, and adolescents who are both Aggressive and Withdrawn.

7.3. Those who are rejected by their peers are more at risk for psychological and behavioral problems, including academic failure, conduct problems, and depression.

7.3.1. Victimization by peers through physical bullying, relational aggression, or electronic harassment, have harmful consequences for ones mental health.

8. .

8.1. .

8.1.1. Materials

8.1.2. Personel

8.1.3. Services

8.1.4. Duration

8.2. .

8.3. .

9. Chapter 7: Work, Leisure and Media

9.1. Adolescents and Work

9.1.1. Part time work during the school year is much less comment in other parts of the world. In most other countries students do not combine school and work, except in apprenticeship programs designed to help them find career-related jobs after they finish high school.

9.1.2. The impact of work on adolescent development depends on the nature of the job and the number of hours worked each week. Working usually has few effects on adolescents' psycholgical development, but working long hours could increase rates of delinquency and drug & alcohol use, which takes a toll on schooling.

9.2. Adolescents and Leisure

9.2.1. Leisure occupies more time that school or work do combine is an adolescents life. It is important to know the difference between Structured and unstructurd leisure time. Structure-Eextracrricular activities. Unstructured- hanging out with friends with not adult supervision.

9.2.2. Adolescents moods are better when they are engaged in structured leisure activities than at any other time.

9.2.3. Having large amounts of unstructured leisure time increases adolescents risk for engaging in problem behavior. Because many adolescents' parents work, self-care during the after school hours can be problematic.

9.3. Adolescents, Media, & the Internet

9.3.1. Adolescents live in a media saturate environment. THE most frequent activities reported by teenagers, are playing game and communicating with friends via email, text message, or social media.

9.3.2. Media is examined through the influence on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Adolescents chose the media they are exposed to, and the fact the=at they interpret the media they are exposed to.

9.3.3. Internet use has increased with adolescents in recent years. Rate of sexual predation by strangers and internet addiction are very low. Also the notion that socializing over the internet is taking time out of "real" relationships doesn't seem to be true. Most communication electronically is between adolescents that are already friends and the internet is a better mean to communicate faster.

10. Chapter 5: Peer Groups