Qualitative Analysis

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Qualitative Analysis by Mind Map: Qualitative Analysis

1. Anions

1.1. Dilute H₂SO₄ Test

1.1.1. Identification NO gas Turns FeSO solution black Reddish brown Indicates NO . H S gas Smells like rotten eggs Turns lead acetate paper black Indicates S . SO gas Turns acidified potassium dichromate paper green. Indicates SO . CO gas Turns lime water milky. Indicates CO .

1.1.2. Confirmation CO Add MgSO solution S Acetic Acid+Lead Acetate Sodium nitroprusside solution Suspension of CdCO SO BaCl solution Acidified KMnO . NO Acetic Acid+FeSO4 2-3 drops H₂SO₄ +KI solution +Starch solution Few drops acidified KMnO .

1.2. Conc. H₂SO₄ Test

1.2.1. Identification HCl gas White ppt Cl indicated Br gas Turns starch paper yellow or orange Br indicated I gas Turns starch paper blue I indicated. NO gas Turns FeSO solution black NO indicated CO gas A colorless, odourless gas C O indicated Vinegar smell CH COO indicated

1.2.2. Confirmation Cl Add conc. HNO and AgNO MnO + conc. H₂SO₄ + heat K Cr O + conc. H₂SO₄ +heat Br Conc. HNO + AgNO solution Dil. HCl+1-2ml carbon disulphide+chlorine water +shake I Conc. HNO + AgNO solution Dil. HCl+1-2ml carbon disulphide+chlorine water +shake CH COO Oxalic acid+2-3 drops of water Conc. H₂SO₄ +Ethyl alcohol+heat C O Acetic Acid+CaCl solution Dil. H₂SO₄ (warm) +2-3 drops KMnO solution NO Conc. H₂SO₄ +Cu chips+Heat FeSO solution+ Conc. H₂SO₄

1.3. No Reaction

1.3.1. SO Dil. HCl + BaCl solution White ppt.

1.3.2. PO Conc. HNO +boil Add amm. molybdate and heat Magnesia mixture White ppt

2. Cations

2.1. To find the group

2.1.1. Test for NH .

2.1.2. Add dil. HCl to OS White ppt. Group 1 (Pb )

2.1.3. Pass H S gas after acidification with dil HCl Black ppt Pb ,Cu . Yellow ppt As

2.1.4. Add solid NH Cl,0.5 ml conc. HNO to the OS. Add NH OH. Reddish brown ppt. Fe White ppt. Al

2.1.5. Through above sol, pass H S gas. White ppt Zn Black ppt Ni and Co Flesh colored Mn

2.1.6. To OS, add solid NH Cl+NH OH+(NH ) CO White ppt Ba , Sr , Ca

2.1.7. If group 5 is absent test for Mg.

2.2. Group 1

2.2.1. Pb Boil with distilled water and divide into two parts Add KI Add K Cr O

2.3. Group 2

2.3.1. Cu Add excess of NH OH Deep blue solution Acidify deep blue solution with dil. acetic acid. Add potassium ferrocyanide Chocolate brown ppt

2.3.2. Pb Add KI Yellow ppt Add K Cr O Yellow ppt

2.3.3. As Conc. HNO + Ammonium molybdate Yellow ppt. Magnesia mixture White ppt

2.4. Group 3

2.4.1. Fe Dissolve in dil HCl and divide into two parts Potassium ferrocyanide Pot. Sulphocyanide

2.4.2. Al Charcoal cavity-cobalt nitrate test Blue mass Dil HCl+Few drops blue litmus sol+NH OH in excess Blue ppt

2.5. Group 4

2.5.1. Zn Dissolve in dil HCl and divide into two parts Potassium ferrocyanide NaOH

2.5.2. Ni /Co Note colour Greenish Purple

2.5.3. Co NH OH+pinch of Potassium nitrite+dil Acetic acid Yellow ppt Boraxbead test Blue bead

2.5.4. Ni NH OH+ Dimethyl glyoxime Bright red ppt Borax bead test Brown in oxidising flame Grey in reducing flame

2.5.5. Mn Dil HCl+ boil of H S, add NaOH And bromine water White ppt turning grey Borax bead test Pink in oxidising flame Colorless in reducing flame

2.6. Group 5

2.6.1. Ba K CrO solution Yellow ppt Light green flame

2.6.2. Sr Ammonium sulphate White ppt Crimson red fame

2.6.3. Ca Ammonium oxalate White ppt Brick red flame

2.7. Group 6

2.7.1. NH Conc NaOH Ammonia gas evolves

2.7.2. Mg NH Cl+NH OH+Ammmonium phosphate solution White ppt Charcoal cavity- cobalt nitrate test with white ppt Pink mass