Race in Latin America

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Race in Latin America by Mind Map: Race in Latin America

1. Where Indians remain, racism remains.

1.1. Government cannot eliminate racism in Mexico that it can in Britain or the US

2. Federick Douglass delivered a speech on January 2, 1893 dedicating the Haitain pavilion of the Chicago Worlds Fair

2.1. Douglass helped plan the exhibits of the pavilion, which he called "A city set upon a hill."

3. Douglass was born as a slave on 1818

3.1. He became the most prominent black spokesman and statesman in the New World.

3.2. He stated that "Haiti was "The original pioneer emancipator of the 19th Century.

3.2.1. it was Haiti's goal to teach the world of the dangers of slavery and the latent powers and capability of the black race.

3.3. Douglass said that Blacks owe much to the American and British abolitionist and to all anti slavery societies

4. The Haiti revolution was a turning point in history

4.1. its meaning could never be forgotten because it demonstrated fate of every slave holder

5. During the 1780's the French of Saint-Domingue was the centerpiece of the Atlantic slave system.

6. Planters in Cuba, Brazil, Jamaica, and Trinidad desired more black slaves to help in the world of sugar and coffee

6.1. the destruction of slavery gave a huge stimulus to slavery from Cuba to Brazil

7. The French emancipation of 1794 was defended by the Americans of Saint Domingue against Spanish, English, and then Napoleons French troops.

8. Brazil received more slaves than any other country in the Americas

8.1. its legacy is one of the most interesting, yet misunderstood multicultural societies in the world.

9. Between 1870 and 1888, liberal ideology conquered the young generation

9.1. Abolition of slavery also took place in 1888.

10. No one believed in the theory of biological inferiority, therefore abolitionists only tried to refute racist doctrines

11. Abolitionists worried about the large, unskilled mass represented by the slaves.

11.1. They hoped to exploit the influence of the "Higher" civilization which were the Europeans.

12. Brazilians were forced to focus on race not slavery

13. the whitening ideology that accepted the mulatto had a compromise with racist determinism

13.1. it supported a movement from black to the direction of white

14. During the 1920's, the whitening thesis received a statement from F.J. Oliveira Vianna

14.1. He made degrees of inferiority in the Brazils racial evolution

15. Brazil had its own racist political movement.

16. At the end of the 19th century, Hispanic America entered a period of economic growth.

16.1. exports, massive public works, railroads, and new factories were all changes to becoming more modernized.

17. Between 1880- 1930, Hispanic Americans were influenced by Darwinism

18. Racial theriores were embraced by Hispanic American elite until 1920.

19. Argentina had almost completed one century of indeependence

19.1. it had fulfilled the dream of its elite.

20. Cuba obtained independence from Spain in 1898

21. The solution to Argentina's modernization problems were immigration and education.

22. The whitening of Argentina was a fast process

22.1. in 1869, Indians took up five percent of the population. By 1895, they took only 0.7%

23. Indians were considered the most challenging enemy of Argentinian population

23.1. By 1890, many of Argentina's Indians had been killed or enslaved.

24. By the 1880's, blacks and Indians became minorities and immigration became a social issue.

25. The Constitution of 1901 gave nonwhites equally and universal male suffrage

26. The immigration law imposed on Cuba in 1902, prohibited Chinese immigration.

27. Creole elite decided to make Argentina and Cuba a white nation after their independence

28. Upwardly mobile individuals were whitened

29. The process of mestizaje is social

30. "An Indian is one who feels that he belongs to an indigenous community"

30.1. Indians are socially defined

31. Indigenuta

31.1. The Indian contribution to the Revolution had been anonymous

32. Indigenismo came more easily to Mexico elites than American elites.

32.1. Indigenismo represented another non-indian formulation of the Indian problem

32.2. It was a white/mestizo construct

32.3. it was a enlightened and sympathetic formulation

32.4. Indigenismo coincided with the social upheaval of the revolution.

33. Porfirian elite was involved in parallel task of state building.

34. "Indiansim"

34.1. Denied the very imperative of integration

34.2. On various occasions it was characterized by a romanticization of Indian history and culture.

35. The revolution gave a fresh incentive to the process of nation-building

36. The mestizo became the ideological symbol of the new regime

37. The third idigenismo reproduced many of the racist assumptions of the "Westernism"

37.1. firmly opposed

37.2. continued to operate within racist paradigm

38. Racism was an intellectual encumbrance that couldn't be shaken off

38.1. it stood as testimony to the continuities linking Porfirian and revolutionary thoughts

39. Mexico's Chinese population was subjected to oppression which led to large explosions in 1931.

40. Indians were left victims of imposed categories due to the conflict between official ideology and sociopolitical circumstances

40.1. "Official ideology proclaims their worth, even their superiority: but sociopolitical circumstances repeatedly displays the reality of prejudice."

41. Racial theorists of the Profiriato were downgraded to bookshelves but their theories rationalized lives on.