Your memory - How it works & how to improve it (Dr Kenneth L. Higbee, PhD - 1997)

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Your memory - How it works & how to improve it (Dr Kenneth L. Higbee, PhD - 1997) by Mind Map: Your memory  -  How it works &  how to improve it  (Dr Kenneth L. Higbee, PhD - 1997)

1. 1. Myths of memory

1.1. 1. Not a thing

1.2. 2. There is not a secret

1.3. 3. Is not easy

1.4. 4. Do not say I have a bad memory

1.5. 5. There is no photographic memory - eidetic memory instead

1.6. 6. Its not matter of age

1.7. 7. Is not a muscle

1.8. 8. All with good memory forget

1.9. 9. Remembering everything cannot clutter your mind - the opposite

1.10. 10. The ten percent myth

1.11. 11. Memory


1.12.1. Memory is a learned skill than an inner ability

2. 2. Meet your Memory: What is it? p.16

2.1. What are the stages and processes of the memory

2.1.1. Value of mem make reasons Judgments Predictions Self-perception Remember facts

2.1.2. Three stages Acquisition or Encoding Learn the material in the first place Storage Keeping until is needed Retrieval Finding and Getting back when it is needed Or the Three Rs Recording, Retaining, Retrieving

2.1.3. Better recording results in Better retrieval

2.1.4. There is difference between Availability and You know when you know Accessibility But not always available

2.2. What is short-term memory

2.2.1. Main characteristics What you perceive at once Rapid forgetting less than 30 secs Limited capacity 7 items (5-9) Rsrch Pdgm Think abou when you see a telephone number and then you forget a little after Rehearsing Keep info in SM Help to transfer in LM

2.2.2. Chuncking Split eg Rsrch Digits Consonants Conctete nouns (eg apple) 6-word sentence

2.2.3. What is Good SM? Uses 1. numerical problems 2. maintain current picture of the world 3. Goals and plans following at the moment 4. Track conversations

2.3. Wha tis long-term memory

2.3.1. What we call ''Memory''

2.3.2. Types of Mem 1. Procedural How we do things eg playing a guitar, using iphone, solving equations, riding a bicycle 2. Semantic Maths and Word meanings 3. Episodic (episodes of life) Events and self in these events

2.3.3. Differences between SM and LM nerves changes that take place in brain SM is an active, ongoing process that easily disrupted by other activities; LM not SM has limited capacity; LM not Retrieval in SM is automatic; LM not Drugs and diseases affect SM without affect the LM and vice versa

2.3.4. Thing about Hypnosis

2.3.5. Eg In surgery touching parts of brain with an electric probe The individuals remember forgotten events or scenes that they did not know that they had lived When the probe is removed the experience stops Pdgm K.F patient H.M

2.3.6. Relationship of LM and SM Information SM

2.4. What are the measures of memory

2.4.1. Three 1. Recall Types 2. Recognition to know again Name remembering is a recall (recognition) task Rsrch 3. Relearning Faster, the second time Language pdgm (after many years)

2.4.2. Not accurate to say that we do not remember when we cannot recall Info is available but not accessible Maybe

2.4.3. Nonsense syllables is the objective way of measuring memory eg CEJ, ZUL, ZIB to reduce familiarity effect

2.5. What is the TIP-OF-THE-TONGUE phenomemon

2.5.1. When you know that you know something but you cannot remember it - close to recall

2.5.2. Rsrch Eldery same as adults in performance

2.5.3. Implications of the T-o-t-T-Ph 1. Memory is matter of degree We do not remember something either completely or not at all 2. Memory is generative, not duplicative (see photographic mem later. My Comnt) Is not an automatic picture-taking process Is a process of reconstruction (this is really important! My Comnt) 3. Words stored in more than one way 1. auditory 2. visual 3. meaning Difference between (This is very important! My Comnt) Availability and Accessibility

3. 6. Strategies for learning p.74

3.1. 1. Reduce interference

3.1.1. overlearn to learn

3.1.2. meaningful

3.1.3. after reading - between learning and recall How much you do Sleep after learning What you do do other things no similar subjects

3.1.4. contexts two subjects two rooms to study change class

3.1.5. time between learning sessions intermittently short breaks, 2-5 min

3.2. 2. Space it out - (Do not overdo it)

3.2.1. Psychologists Massed learning cramming=large amount in a short of time not good better when Distributed learning or spaced learning better in delayed examination

3.2.2. Space between sessions plan deciade the length of studying better in repetition concentrate better consolidate info during break 2 min break every 21 min teaching sessions different context and different mood more effective reading better recall when mood during reading is the same with mood during test session

3.3. 3. Break it up - in more pieces of work

3.3.1. PART METHOD - learn first part before move to second immediate feedback feedback sustain interest large amount of material

3.3.2. WHOLE METHOD - beginning to end overall picture efficient with practice lead toword mastery realize things before read them later on

3.3.3. Combination Whole Part Method the whole thing one or twice then break it into parts finally review better for difficult material Progressive Part Method learn first part learn second part then the 2 parts together then the 3 part then the 3 parts together ...and so on.... Connect parts together

3.4. 4. Recite it - Repeat without looking

3.4.1. How to do it Read the headings and try to tell yourself what is about recall test effect spent more time to recite than to read

3.4.2. Why you must do it combine many strategies simultaneously forces active learning gives you feedback involves repetition forces to pay attention on what you are doing practise as what you do during exams rehearsing retrieval - testing yourself transfer knowledge to long-term memory Indepedent whether you are bright or dull long or short materials the material is meaningful

3.5. 5. Use a Study System

3.5.1. An effective study method should 1. Based on strategies 2. Identify and Understand the important parts of the material 3. Help you remember the important parts 4. Be more efficient than merely reading the material over and over again 5. Be easy to learn

3.5.2. SQ3R 1. Survey Overview for a few minutes 2. Question What is in it for me? 3. Read 3rd step, not the 1st Finish reading then uderline (carefully) 4. Recite Ask yourself Spend about half of your time 5. Review A very basic learning strategy After reading Never finish without review! Increase intervals between review

3.6. 6. How well do the Principles and Strategies work

3.6.1. Principles associate overlearn

3.6.2. Strategies Review recite

3.6.3. Rules to remember (principles and strategies) 1. Learn by wholes (Whole Learning, SQ3R) 2. Use active self-testing (Recitation) 3. Use rhythm and grouping (Meaningfulness, Organization) 4. Attention to meaning and advantages of picturing (Meaningfulness, Visualization) 5. Mental alertness and concentration (Attention) 6. Use of secondary associations (Association) 7. Confidence in ability to memorize (Relaxation, Overlearning)

4. The most prominent pieces

4.1. Forgettig due to interference

4.2. Feedback sustain interest

5. 13. Using Mnemonics: Remembering People's Names and Faces p.188

5.1. How Do We Remember Names and Faces

5.1.1. In general 1. We see tha face and hear the name We remember better what we see than what we hear 2. Faces are treated differently from other pictures (Ask me why, My Comnt) 3. Face is recognition task, Name is a recall task Guess who wins!!

5.1.2. Recongizing Faces

5.1.3. Recognition Vs Recall Harder to recall faces No words to describe less frequently task

5.1.4. Other Factors Affecting Name Memory Names tend to be harder than other words One study found that names and surnames are not recalled differently Names are not similar to words

5.2. A System for Remembering Names and Faces

5.2.1. Step 1: Get the Name Pay attention Ask to repeat his name if necessairy

5.2.2. Step 2: Make the Name Meaningful Give a meaning i.e. Lefteris= Free man

5.2.3. Step 3: Focus on the Face i.e his face looks like a hen who found her freedom from the box which she was locked

5.2.4. Step 4: Associate the Face with the Name

5.2.5. Step 5: Review the Association three times at least in the following minutes

6. 14. Using Mnemonics: Absentmindedness and Education

6.1. Absentmindedness

6.1.1. no remedy

6.1.2. The price we pay for being able to carry out so many complex activities with only a small investment of conscious attention

6.2. Prospective Remembering

6.2.1. Remember to remember in the future

6.2.2. External Reminders

6.3. Retrospective Remembering

6.3.1. Concerns memory for past events, things we have learned in the past

6.4. Mnemonics in Education

6.4.1. 1. Adaptable

6.4.2. 2. Joyful

6.4.3. 3. TIme efficient

6.4.4. 4. Versatile

6.5. Memory in Education

6.5.1. Education is 1. Knowledge acquisition 2. Problem solving 3. Reasoning

6.5.2. But to go there you need to learn and remember other things Think of how much time later you had understood but before you had to learn it (remember it) So, Ka, Ps and R. comes later Before this, we need to remember things Mnemonics are essential to input in education There is bias...

7. 12. Mental Filing: Phonetic Mnemonic (Major Memory System - My Comnt)

7.1. What is the Phonetic System?

7.1.1. Origin Winckelman 1648 Modifications later 1980 final version by Loisette and Williams James

7.1.2. Description Single click

7.1.3. How to use it Memorize the list of 100 words

7.2. How Can you Use the Phonetic System?

7.2.1. A Mental Filing System i.e. 1-10 for Sunday 11-20 Monday and so forth Obligations 61-70 for chlidren and wife For everything

7.2.2. Remembering Numbers Use the consonant system to produce your own number-words

7.2.3. Other Uses Birthdays

8. 11. Mental Filing systems: Peg Mnemonic p.157

8.1. What is the Peg System?

8.1.1. Series of prememorized concrete nouns

8.1.2. Origin Mid-1600s Henry Herdson

8.1.3. How to use it As vividly as possible 1-gun 2-shoe 3-tree 4-door 5-hive 6-Bricks 7-heaven 8-gate 9-wine 10-hen

8.1.4. Other Pegs Shape 1 reminds candle 2 reminds swan 3 reminds McDonalds in rotation and so forth Rhyme 11-20

8.1.5. Alphabet Pegs A hay B bee C sea D deed E eve and so forth Alphabet letters rhyme with a concrete word A ape B boy C cat D dog Words begin with each letter of the alphabet but do not rhyme

8.1.6. Peg and Loci Compared previously memorized concrete items Peg=objects Loci=Locations Both change the free-recall task to aided recall via a paired-associate task Advantages over free recall 1. Definite and consistent learning 2. Definite pigeonholes 3. Systematic retrieval plan

8.2. How Can you Use the Peg System

8.2.1. Remembering Ideas i. e. the ten commanders

8.2.2. Remembering Numbers

8.2.3. Using the Same Pegwords Over and Over

8.2.4. Other Uses School Studies everyday life

9. Abbreviations

9.1. Short-term memory

9.1.1. SM

9.2. Long-term memory

9.2.1. LM

9.3. Memory

9.3.1. Mem

9.4. Paradigm

9.4.1. Pdgm

9.5. Research

9.5.1. Rsrch

9.6. Example

9.6.1. eg

9.7. Information

9.7.1. Info

9.8. My comment

9.8.1. My Comnt

10. 3. Meet your Memory: How does it work? p.32

10.1. How and why we forget?

10.1.1. Good to forgetting

10.1.2. We fail at the 3 Rs Recording Retention Retrieval

10.1.3. Five explanations Decay disuse Repression Freud Intentionally forgetting Distortion Remember the way we want Interference by other learning Not so much the amount we learn as it is what we learn that determines that forgetting by interference Proactive inhibition Retroactive inhibition Cue dependency Find the right cue to retrieve

10.1.4. Your memory Attic The attic pdgm Rsrch Forgetting is mostly by the interference

10.2. How fast we forget?

10.2.1. Dependent on the time

10.2.2. We remember the gist or the main idea not thoroughly

10.2.3. It depends on how well (effectively) we learn rather than how fast evidence based

10.2.4. More meaningful is the material the faster we learn

10.3. How we remember pictures VS words?

10.3.1. Imagery process think of a chair Better for concrete events objects words Concrete words produce mental images than abstract nouns visual system Right half of the brain unlimited mental pictures better in recognition 600 paired words chaper 2 One picture is worth 1000 words Images are inherently more memorable Both verbal and mental images two ways of storage two notes (in mind) than one

10.3.2. Verbal process think of the word chair Better for abstract verbal information verbal system Left half of the brain faster recall

10.4. How do exceptional memories work?

10.4.1. Mem is a learned ability than an innate skill

10.4.2. Photographic memory is a powerful application of learned memory techniques

10.4.3. Eidetic memory Duplicate the info 5-10% of children possess eidetic mem Much less in adolescents Similar to photographic but different Eidetic means ''Identical'' or ''Duplicative a more powerful version of visual capacity that we all possess

10.4.4. Differences with Photographic memory The images last a few seconds or a few minutes Has to do with the subjective state of the viewer Not an objective reproduction like a camera The person does not make a split-second snapshot but requires several seconds to scan the scene Images are not brought back once they have gone not recorded in LM

10.4.5. Impressive examples 1. 23 years old woman She could retain a pattern of 10.000 black and white squares in her mind for three months 2. Alexandr Luria referred as ''S''

10.4.6. Other examples 1. A woman could memorize a 16x16 matrx with 256 random digits 2. A man (V.P.) could memorize a 6x8 matrix of 48 digits and recalled them a week later 3. A man could memorize a 100-digit number in 12 min if the digits were read to him He became confused if he dad to read them himself 4. Another could memorize two and a half pages of materials after reading it only once 5. All these performances have been attributed by the researchers and by the performers themselves, to the use of learned mnemonics, interest and practice more than to innate abilities

10.4.7. Two kinds of impressive memory 1. Memorists possess some inborn abilities 2. Mnemonists learned mnemonics skills

10.4.8. Idiot savants People with impressive mental abilities (such as photographic memory or the ability to do complex mathematical calculations) but lack general intelligence In other words they are wise idiots

10.4.9. The blessing that become a burden ''S'' reported that when he tried to read, every word brought forth an image these images cluttered his mind and prevented him from understanding what he was reading He also found hard to erase images that were no longer useful

10.5. How well sleep learning work?

10.5.1. Dozens of studies

10.5.2. What sleep means?

10.5.3. How it might work? 1. The material must be presented during light sleep 2. No complex (reasoning or undestanding) materials only materials such as 3. Even both conditions are met, sleep learning is not sufficient by itslelf but only as an aid to daytime studies

10.5.4. Subliminal learning Means learning below the conscious awareness messages that are too fast or too weak for us to be aware of them My Cmnt The author concludes that we are not likely to learn and remember materials if you are not consciously aware that it is being presented to you But, Rsrch suggests that indeed we are able to learn information without our full awareness

11. 4. How to Remember Almost Anything: Basic Principles p.46

11.1. 1. Meaningfulness (Familiar, Meaning for us)

11.1.1. The alternative is learning by rote By Repeating

11.1.2. Rsrch 1. nonsense syllables took about 90 min to memorize 2. prose took less than 30 min 3. poetry took 10 min

11.1.3. Familiarity (My Comnt: overlearning/relearning) Learning builds on learning Expose to something already known Rsrch suggests the importance of familiarity in remembering Elderly outperform to adults

11.1.4. Rhymes Rsrch suggests that rhyme is effective cue to recall

11.1.5. Patterns Find pattern or relationships helps make more meaningful eg 375=3x(25)==>75

11.2. 2. Organazation (Get it all together)

11.2.1. eg words alphabetically

11.2.2. The more consciously organize the material at the time you are first learning it, the easier it is to retrieve Easier to find eg Recall better

11.2.3. Chunking is kind of organazation

11.2.4. Rsrch materials into categories helps learning infrormation better

11.2.5. The Serial Position Effect the order Info in the beginnings and in the end are remembered more Immediate recall after learning, the last few items are remembered more When there is some delay after learning (in recall) the first few items tend to remembered more than the last few ADVISE First Second

11.3. 3. Association (Link with others - What reminds me)

11.3.1. Analogies, metaphors, examples, comparing, contrasting

11.3.2. Link with something already known, familiar

11.3.3. eg Difference between the motel and the hotel Motel Hotel The number of 1206 convert as

11.3.4. Unconscious associations You meet a person and he looks familiar The reason is that you associate with somebody that you already know

11.3.5. Make the material more Meaningful Meaningful means the concept with more Associations (Very important! My Comnt) Familiar

11.3.6. Rsrch 1. Mind works as a network where it looks for associations, similar concepts, multiple associations Mind map (My Comnt) 2. Remember more, when you relate information to yourself and your life 3. Remembering and undesrtanding easier new information when teachers help students to relate info to what they already know e.g. Today we will learn about the mind function. Think of how your body works, with interconnections (My Comnt)

11.3.7. Think Around it (technique) This is an Old concept described by James Mill an English philosopher (roughly 160 years ago) Anything you can you recall Free mem technique e.g. When trying to remember your old teacher's name try to remember anything around him Utility in witnesses Irrelevant or incomplete info could help to remember more

11.4. 4. Visualization ( I can see it all now)

11.4.1. Imagine it Make learning effective Is fun

11.4.2. Take a mental ride at your home

11.4.3. What is known 1. Concrete words and sentences are learned faster and remembered better than abstract words 2. In Paired-associate word pairs, people report spontaneous use of mental pictures and learn these pairs more quicly 3. Instructing people to use mental pictures relating 2 words of a pair, help learning pronouns better 4. Using vivid visual imagery perform better in recall tests than those with poor visual imagery

11.4.4. Unlimited capacity in nouns

11.5. 5. Attention

11.5.1. Stay in present

11.5.2. We forget because we never actually got in the first place We never consciously pay attention to it eg

11.5.3. Bad memories Not because we forget but because we do not learn it at all Pay more attention

11.5.4. We can pay attention to one thing at a time

11.5.5. Rsrch Attention is highly correlated with school achievements than the amount of time spent on the task

11.5.6. Absentmindedness Due to not pay attention Where is my car? Where is my Keys?

11.5.7. My Comnt Attention is the fundamental principle during learning. It is associated with Familiarity and Association and Interest. First, Pay Attention and thereafter use the rest techniques

12. 5. How to Remember Almost Anything Else: More Basic Principles p.62

12.1. 1. Repetition (again and again)

12.1.1. Combine with other principles not just repeating

12.1.2. Overlearning Master the topic

12.1.3. Gives confidence

12.1.4. Materials become more familiar Discussed before

12.2. 2. Relaxation (stay calm - release)

12.2.1. Joke: ''Friends, just before I stood up to speak to you, only God and I knew what I was going to say; now, only God knows''

12.2.2. Stress hinder mem and learning

12.2.3. Little stress is useful

12.2.4. Test anxiety Anxiety associated with any performance is being evaluated

12.2.5. Why? Not pay adequately attention causes problems in 1. Encoding 2. Organizing 3. Retrieving

12.2.6. What to do? 2 approaches 1. use relaxation techniques 2. better prepared, less anxious Rsrch (Reduce anxiety) 1. Study skills 2. Test-taking strategies

12.2.7. Stress causes Mental Blocks You know it but something else keeps intruding you

12.3. 3. Context (Where??)

12.3.1. Recall better in same place than different places

12.3.2. Rsrch 1. Better recall when associate the place with the materials 2. Each topic in different room produce better recall than in the same room Why? More flexibility in retrieval 3. Studying and take the test in the same room found to aid recall

12.3.3. What to do! 1. Study in the place you will take the test 2. Similar setting such as another class or library 3. Use the context effect tech Try to recall the studying conditions 4. Immunize Study in different places Rsrch Use a place only for study to associate the study with the place

12.3.4. Psychological context Remember better if you are in the same emo state/mood (or drug state) 1. Alcohol 2. Caffeine 3. Nicotine

12.4. 4. Interest

12.4.1. Influences attention

12.4.2. Elderly talk more about past. The reason that they are interested in new things - they do not care

12.4.3. Motivate yourself Give a purpose How? 1. Say: From now I am going to be interested in that 2. Try to relate the materials with self 3. It matters you!! 4. External or Artificial reward

12.5. 5. Feedback (How are you going?)

12.5.1. Know your progress

12.5.2. Make adjustments and Improvements

12.5.3. Rsrch 1. Half received feedback and other half did not Those who received feedback remembered more materials a week later 2. Corrective feedback make students to learn more efficiently

12.5.4. Assess how well you know Test effect With a friend

13. 7. Working Miracles with Your Memory: An introduction to Mnemonics p.93

13.1. 1. What are Mnemonics

13.1.1. Derived from Mnemosyne Ancient Greek Godness

13.1.2. Loci system 500 B.C. By Greek orators to remember speeches

13.1.3. Mem aids Association Rhymes Location Imagination

13.1.4. Memorizing the calendar READY???? Follow me (My Comnt) eg 1988 read this number Now Let's go

13.2. 2. First Letters and Keywords

13.2.1. First-letter Mnemonics Use Acronyms Acrostics 4 At least ways that A&A aid memory

13.3. 3. Basic Principles of Mnemonics

13.3.1. Meaningfulness not for material tha already has meaning

13.3.2. Organization Record and Retrieve

13.3.3. Association

13.3.4. Visualization

13.3.5. Attention Concentrate in order to form pictures and associate them Intentional thinking (My Comnt)

13.4. 4. How to Make Effective Visual Associations

13.4.1. Interaction

13.4.2. Vividness 1. Exaggeration 2. Motion 3. Substitution

13.4.3. Bizarreness

13.5. 5. More on Effective Mnemonics

13.5.1. How Can you Use the Images for Abstract Material? Happiness picture a smile face Liberty picture a Liberty bell Concretize abstract materials for effective visual images

13.5.2. Should you Make up Your Own Mnemonics? Yes

13.5.3. Generation effect Better form your own mnemonics Why?

14. 8. The Legitimacy of Mnemonics: Limitations and Pseudo-Limitations p.113

14.1. Some Limitations of Mnemonics

14.1.1. 1. Time

14.1.2. 2. Abstract Material

14.1.3. 3. Learning VS Retention

14.1.4. 4. Imagery Ability

14.1.5. 5. Verbatim Memory

14.1.6. 6. Interference

14.1.7. 7. Maintenance and Trasfer

14.2. Some Pseudo-Limitations of Mnemonics

14.2.1. Mnemonics 1. are not Practical 2. do not aid Understanding 3. Give you more to Remember 4. are Crutches 5. are Tricks

15. 9, Mental Filing Systems: Link and Story Mnemonics p.131

15.1. Your Mental filing System

15.1.1. 3 Ways that a Mneminic System can help you 1. Gives a plce to start, a way to locate the first item 2. Gives way of proceeding systematically from one item to next (or info) 3. You know when your recalled is Finished

15.2. What is the Link System

15.2.1. Called also Chain System

15.2.2. Elementary of the Mnemonic systems

15.2.3. When you have a list of 10 words, then visualize and mentatally associate the 1 with the 2 word, then the 2 with the 3 and so forth

15.2.4. Instructions 1. See each association in your mind 2. Do not go back to and review the words 3. Trust your mem that you will be able to recall when you it is needed 4. When someone (or a book) gives you a list of things to remember, Link the first word with the person or the book

15.3. What is the Story System

15.3.1. Similar to Link System but now you have to produce a story in order to link the word list

15.3.2. Differences between the 2 Systems 1. Independence Vs Sequence 2. Story System requires more +Time 3. Longer lists are harder to produce a story (Congitive Load, My Cmnt) 4. Link System aids you to recall Forward AND Backward. With the Story System is more demanding to go Backwards.

15.4. How Can you Use the Link and Story System

15.4.1. Lists Shopping list Names of Important Persons

15.4.2. Speeches or Reports

15.4.3. Other uses University Foreign languages

16. 10. Mental Filing Systems: Loci Method p.144

16.1. What is the Loci System

16.1.1. Origin 500 BC Simonides Collapse Identified bodies Loci is the plural of locus= Location, place ''Typical System''

16.1.2. How to use it Two Steps 1. Memorize a series of mental images of familar locations 2. Association each item to remembered with a the concrete location

16.1.3. Oher features How and Why it works 1. combines the mnemonic principles 2. Step by step storage 3. Time of retireval for abstract and concrete nouns is almost the same 4. Strong association is required 5. In one point you can associate more than one item. Interaction between the items

16.1.4. Loci system works the same as your mind functions Images and Locations

16.2. How Well Does the Loci System Work?

16.2.1. Rsrch 1. People can remember the locations of things they have seen or heard as they remember the things themselves 2. Mem for location aids to remember other characteristics i.e Remember where you have seen the person you can recall the person's name 3. Loci System significantly improves the memory for lists of items

16.2.2. Mem for locations Easy to remeber locations and places

16.2.3. Using locations to Aid Mem Use the location to remember other info Context effect Note taking You can recall where is the info on the paper Naming the capitals on a map, then recall better later

16.2.4. Effectiveness of Loci System Recall performance is equivalent to having the loci physically present Also for elderly, blind and brain-damaged

16.3. How Can you Use the Loci System?

16.3.1. A Mental Filing System Instead of having a piece of paper to note things to be remebered later

16.3.2. Using the same over and over again Not such interference To reduce interference do two things Multiple sets of locations Progressive elaboration

16.3.3. Other uses In each scene n the loci system link more than one items as the link method does i.e. At your school route you can associate with your done things in the day with the recycle Bin, at your aunt's house the list for supermarket. Later, at your friend's house the list for school materials.