Erica McMunn / ED302 Mind Map

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Erica McMunn / ED302 Mind Map by Mind Map: Erica McMunn /          ED302 Mind Map

1. Bill W. Hopkins, Jr. Superintendent

2. MORGAN COUNTY Mr. Jimmy Dobbs District 5 (Priceville - Sparkman) Mr. Tom Earwood District 6 (Brewer - Cotaco) Mr. Adam Glenn District 2 (Danville) Mr. Paul Holmes Chairman District 4 (Eva) Mr. Jeff McLemore District 7 (Lacey's Spring and Union Hill) Mr. Billy Rhodes District 1 (West Morgan) Mr. Mike Tarpley Vice Chairman District 3 (Falkville)

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Reform Movement

3.1.1. Old Deluder laws

3.1.2. All Boys Public School

3.1.3. Charter Schools

3.1.4. Women's Education Reform

3.1.5. No Child Left Behind

3.2. Historical Interpretation

3.2.1. Liberal school where they believed that the history of the U.S. education was a progressive evolution of the school system. This offered an equal opportunity for everyone.

3.2.2. Radical-Revisionist school expanded to meet the needs of elites in society for the control of immigrants and working class.

3.2.3. Conservation schools faced political and ahistorical criticism.

4. Politics of Education

4.1. Radical

4.1.1. Contrast both conservative and liberal prospectives.

4.1.2. Does not believe that free market capitalism is the greatest form of economic organization.

4.1.3. Democratic socialism is better political-economic system because it is fair.

4.2. Conservative

4.2.1. Humans progress is dependent on individual initiative drive

4.2.2. Believe that free market or market economy of capitalism is both productive and respectful

4.2.3. Groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive

4.3. Liberal

4.3.1. Accepts the conservative belief in market capitalist economy, but believes that the capitalist market economy is is prone to rescission that leads to government intervention.

4.3.2. Stress on social problems that groups are affected by the structure of society. Grouping is used more so than individuals.

4.4. Neo-liberal

4.4.1. A combination of conservative and liberal perspectives.

4.4.2. The agendas form a part of federal, state, and local policies.

4.4.3. Stress five different areas for education policy Austerity The market model Individualism State Intervention Economic prosperity, race, and class

4.5. Traditional Vision of Education

4.5.1. Traditional leads more towards the conservative side

4.5.2. View schools to be necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of the U.S. society

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Theoretical Perspective

5.1.1. Interactionist The relations between the schools and society.

5.1.2. Conflict Do not see the relationship between school and society.

5.1.3. Functional Begins with a picture of society that implies interdependence of the social system.

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. differs from the philosophy and is firmly rooted in each practice

6.2. Idealism- first systematic philosophy in Western thought. Teachers search for truth through ideas rather than examinations of the students.

6.3. Realism- A philosophy that falls in the same tradition as idealism but follows plato and aristole. The goal of education is to help students understand and the apply the principles to help solve the problems.


6.5. Pragmatism- an American philosophy developed in latter times and is based off of instrumentalism and experimentalism. The teacher becomes the facilitator in the classroom while the students apply prior knowledge to what is being learned.


6.7. Existentialism and Phenomenology- a modern philosophy. Focuses on the needs of the students both cognitively and affectively. Teachers take risk and work constantly to enable the students to become "wide awake".

6.8. Neo-Marxism- the role of education is to reproduce the economic, social, and political status quo.

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. School process- the way in which school cultures are created and maintained

7.2. No Child Left Behind requires teachers to be highly qualified with a college degree, full certification and demonstrable content knowledge

7.3. School- Teachers do the decisions making on the curriculum, disciplinary acts and other academic things

7.4. 75.2 teachers were female

7.5. The U.S. has one of the most decentralized school systems in the world

8. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1. Humanist Curriculum- reflects on the idealist. The teachers present the best teaching by the understsanding of the thought and what is wrote.

8.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum- reflects on the pragmatist. Different types of students with different need should receive different schooling/teaching

8.3. Developmental Curriculum- the needs and interest of the students instead of the needs of society

8.4. Social Meliorist Curriculum- Teach students to help improve society or change society itself

9. Equality of Opportunity

9.1. Caste Stratification – occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion.

9.2. Estate Stratification – occurs agrarian in societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth.

9.3. Class Stratification – occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits.

9.4. There are five different types of Social Stratification in the United States- Upper, Upper Middle, Lower Middle, Working Class,

9.4.1. % of the population in each class- Upper Class: 1 – 3% Upper Middle Class: 15 % Lower Middle Class: 25% Working Class: 40% Underclass/Lower Class 20%

9.5. The Coleman Report

9.5.1. An influential and controversial study, the Coleman Report was based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity (the national sample included almost 650,000 students and teachers in more than 3,000 schools), was mandated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and directed by the sociologist James Coleman.

9.5.2. Coleman's subsequent work was designed to help identify the characteristics of schools which did matter, so that the impact of school relative to that of family could be increased.

9.5.3. Coleman’s work was oft misinterpreted as an argument that ‘schools don't matter, only families matter’.

9.6. *****Achievement Gap refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students (especially groups defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity or gender). *****Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13 and 17 but achieve at lower levels in science at ages 9, 13 and 17. This is an example of sociological research that illustrates the impact of achievement gaps in schools on equal educational opportunities.

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. The Functionalist Vision of a “just society” is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

10.1.1. Functionalists expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences.


10.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality (this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background).

10.3. Interactionist theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

10.3.1. Student Centered or Extra-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student.

10.3.2. School Centered or Within School explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations.


10.4. Theories

10.4.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories - a sociological theory that claims that the working class cannot easily gain cultural capital, hindering their access to education and upward social mobility.

10.4.2. Cultural Difference Theories *First theory asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure. *Second theory views working class and non-white students as resisting the dominant culture of schools. *Third theory asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectation for children.

10.4.3. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory- born smart or not smart, there is no change

10.5. Characteristics of Effective Schools

10.5.1. High expectations for students by teachers and administrators.

10.5.2. Strong, effective leadership by school administration.

10.5.3. Accountability processes for both students and teachers.

10.5.4. Close monitoring of student learning.

10.5.5. A high degree of instructional time on task.

10.5.6. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems.

11. Educational Reform

11.1. A Nation At Risk

11.1.1. The first wave of education reform in the United States stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards. The reform focused on The need for excellence and equity in schools. The need to clarify educational goals. The need to develop a common core curriculum. The need to eliminate tracking programs. The need for major changes in vocational education. The need for education to teach about technology. The need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning. The needs to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers.

11.1.2. The second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made at the State Governor's Conference. The reform focused on Teaching leadership and management. Parental involvement and choice in schools. Student readiness for school (for preschoolers). School facilities being fully utilized. Quality colleges and accountability for learning.

11.2. The Carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared : Teachers for a 21st Century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs. It asserted: * Teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools. * The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs. * The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates.

11.3. GOALS 2000

11.3.1. Goal 1: All children will start school ready to learn.

11.3.2. Goal 2: High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%.

11.3.3. Goal 3: American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

11.3.4. Goal 4: U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement.

11.3.5. Goal 5: Every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy.

11.3.6. Goal 6: Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.


11.4.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3 through 8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10 through 12 with science testing. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools.

11.4.2. States and districts are required to report school by school data on student test scores, broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, white non-Hispanic, special education, limited English proficiency, and/or low income.

11.4.3. States must set Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) goals for each school.

11.4.4. Schools that don’t meet AYP for two years are labeled “In Need of Improvement”. This means that schools must offer the students the option to go to another public school and/or receive federally funded tutoring. Funds would also be made available for teacher professional development. If the school does not meet subsequent year’s AYP, it would be subject to restructuring.

11.4.5. Schools must have “highly qualified teachers” for teachers in the core academic subjects.



11.5.1. Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

11.5.2. Building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction.

11.5.3. Recruiting, developing, rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals.

11.5.4. Turning around the lowest-achieving schools.