Approaches to Psychology

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Approaches to Psychology by Mind Map: Approaches to Psychology

1. Evolutionary

1.1. Using Darwin's theory of natural selection, this approach explain behavior patterns as adaptations naturally selected because they increase reproductive success.

2. Biological

2.1. This approach examines how complex chemical and biological processes within the nervous and endocrine systems are related to the behavior of organisms.

3. Psychodynamic

3.1. This approach focuses on unconscious internal conflicts to explain mental disorders, personality and motivation.

3.2. Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Heinz Kohut and Sigmund Freud are some of the theorists behind this approach.

3.3. Sigmund Freud is known for his work on the id, ego and superego. As well as his theory on defense mechanisms.

3.4. Carl Jung is known for his theories on archetypes and the collective unconscious. He also laid the theoretical foundation for the popular test: MBTI.

3.5. Karen Horney is known for her theories in neurotic needs and also personality types.

4. Behavioral

4.1. This approach focuses on measuring, recording and observing behavior in relation to the environment.

4.2. This approach assumes behavior results from learning.

4.3. Several theorists behind this approach include: E.L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, Jonn B. Watson and B.F. Skinner

4.4. Ivan Pavlov trained dogs to salivate at the respond of a sound or tone.

4.5. John B. Watson is infamously known for carrying out the Little Albert Experiment by training the child to cry at the ring of an iron rod in order to condition him to be afraid of white rats.

4.6. B.F. Skinner trained pigeons using reinforcement and shaping to get them to move where he wanted. The Skinner Box is named after him.

5. Humanistic

5.1. This approach focuses on the unique qualities of humans, free will and potential for personal growth to guide behavior and mental processes.

5.2. This approach suggests humans have the innate ability to solve their own problems.

5.3. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are two of the theorists behind this approach.

5.4. Abraham Maslow is coined for his theory of hierarchal needs in motivational psychology.


6. Sociocultural

6.1. This approach examines cultural differences in an attempt to understand, predict and control behavior.

7. Cogntive

7.1. This approach emphasizes the importance of receiving, storing, and processing information in understanding human behavior.

7.2. Thinking, reasoning, intelligence, memory and language are also studied in this approach.

7.3. Jean Piaget is one of the theorists behind this approach.

7.4. Jean Piaget is known for his theory of cognitive development.