IDEA Categories of Disabilities

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IDEA Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: IDEA Categories of Disabilities

1. Autism

1.1. Modifications

1.1.1. Develop and use visuals for instruction, highlighting important information

1.1.2. Assess sensory needs, incorporating exercise through the day and provide fidget toys

1.1.3. Give child choices and control

1.1.4. Develop social stories/scripts

1.1.5. Small group instruction

1.2. Tech Assists

1.2.1. Any technology that uses visual systems instead of audio (preferred by autistic children)

1.2.2. Picture Communication Symbol (PCS) such as Boardmaker Software

2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Modifications

2.1.1. Depending on the severity of the child's condition, various accommodations can be put in place from visibility and hearing impaired categories

2.1.2. Deaf-blindness will often require individual support in the classroom or a separate classroom

2.2. Tech Assists

2.2.1. Braille can be used

2.2.2. Depending on the severity of the child's condition, various tech assists from the visibility and hearing impaired categories can be used, such as CCTV and TDD

3. Deafness

3.1. Modifications

3.1.1. Sign Language interpreter

3.1.2. Get their attention before speaking in the case of lip reader

3.1.3. Clearly enunciate

3.1.4. Frequently check for understanding

3.2. Tech Assists

3.2.1. TDD

3.2.2. Hearing aid

3.2.3. Speech to text translator

3.3. see for a thorough list

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. Modifications

4.1.1. Use Boundary Markers such as barriers to represent the spaces used for different functions

4.1.2. Materials should be stored within reach with clear labeling using pictures and words)

4.1.3. Post a clear and predictable daily schedule, using pictures

4.1.4. Use hands on demonstrations that will help the child understand what to do

4.2. Tech Assists

4.2.1. Computer or iPad to increase visual instruction and help with repetition

4.2.2. Speech to text SW that may be used to help the child with the writing process

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. Modifications

5.1.1. Establish open, accepting environment

5.1.2. Carefully select partners

5.1.3. Supply extra opportunities for success

5.1.4. Consider seating arrangements by keeping potentially harmful objects or substances away from easy access

5.1.5. Have groups of “one.”

5.2. Tech Assists

5.2.1. Low Tech: Point Sheets and Behavior Charts

5.2.2. Mid Tech: iPod for calming music, The Motivaider - device to buzz for a reminder to stay on task

5.2.3. High Tech:, for student to practice skills and learn away from others when needed

5.3. Case Study: Megan cognitive and intelligence testing shows normal range, but a combination of home situation (divorced parents with an expectation that she be her siblings' caregiver and lack of self confidence) is presenting a consistent hurdle to work performance

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Modifications and Tech Assists are similar to deafness

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. Modifications

7.1.1. Give extra time for assignment and test completion

7.1.2. Have student work in small group or with a partner

7.1.3. Provide teacher notes or taped lessons so they can review and catch what they missed

7.1.4. Go step by step when instructing

7.2. Tech Assists

7.2.1. Computer availability to assist in the writing process

7.2.2. Age appropriate games (computer or board) for confidence building - make these simple ones

7.2.3. Video based instructional material

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. Modifications

8.1.1. Determine Disabilities and utilize various accommodations depending on need.  For example, if a student has orthopedic impairments as well as intellectual disability, then put modifications in place for both categories

8.2. Tech Assists

8.2.1. Low to High Tech Assists can be used depending on the disabilities presented.  For example, if a child has speech impairment as well as orthopedic impairment, then you can provide dictation software as well an easily accessible keyboard, if it is appropriate

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. Modifications

9.1.1. Ensure classroom arrangement that allows for safe and easy passage to all areas

9.1.2. Ensure that any instruction requiring hands on or mobility work is accessible to the student, or modify instruction to enable the student to complete

9.1.3. Modified Physical Education

9.1.4. Place the student near exit for safety and ease

9.2. Tech Assists

9.2.1. Speech to text technology if writing is an issue

9.2.2. Any technology that allows access where the physical impairment may be a hindrance, such as talking calculator

9.3. Case Study: Mateo is in a wheelchair due to a childhood spinal injury.  He is able to navigate his own wheelchair with his right hand, but doesn't have sufficient motor skills to write without assistance or type using a keyboard.  Testing and classroom performance has shown him in normal range for cognitive and intelligence abilities. One on one in class support is provided.

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Modifications

10.1.1. Depending on the impairment, be flexible with lesson plans, especially if the student misses instruction frequently

10.1.2. For ADHD, allow extra time for transitions

10.1.3. Simplify steps as needed to accommodate impariment

10.1.4. Allow extra time to complete assignments and tests

10.1.5. Seat the student close to the teacher and away from distractions (ADHD)

10.1.6. Keep schedules predictable and consistent, making it visible at all times

10.2. Tech Assists

10.2.1. Use buzzer/alarm type technology to signal continued attention or focus needed

10.2.2. Use instructional computer games to retain attention while learning, like STMath, keyboarding software, etc.

10.2.3. Use flipped classroom methodology allowing for kids to get video instruction at home and spending time in class 'doing'

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. Modifications

11.1.1. Complete fewer or different homework problems than peers

11.1.2. Write shorter papers

11.1.3. Mark texts with a highlighter

11.1.4. Take tests in small group settings

11.1.5. Allow for additional time on tests and written assignments

11.2. Tech Assists

11.2.1. Low Tech: use writing web to help with the writing process

11.2.2. High Tech: Allow them to dictate if writing is an issue

11.2.3. High Tech: Use calculator or table of math facts

11.2.4. Low Tech: Use alarm to help with time management

11.3. Case Study: Nick presents with normal level verbal skills, but Math is a specific challenge and testing shows low range performance on specific cognitive areas in the non-verbal range including spatial reasoning and number processing

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Modifications

12.1.1. Give assignments orally and written

12.1.2. Allow extended time for assignments and tests

12.1.3. Provide the student with information on topics prior to going over them in class (language)

12.1.4. Allow time for the student to express themselves

12.1.5. Provide a copy of class notes

12.2. Tech Assists

12.2.1. Provide/Allow spell checker, calculator, AAC

12.2.2. Provide access to Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. Modifications

13.1.1. Physical arrangement of the classroom to facilitate mobility and accommodate physical needs

13.1.2. Predictable and consistent routine

13.1.3. Flexible schedule that allows for rest breaks

13.1.4. Simplified instruction

13.2. Tech Assists

13.2.1. Computer based videos or lesson work that aims to simplify information that can be done at the student's pace

13.2.2. Buzzer type device to help signal for breaks or attention

13.2.3. Any physical aids needed such as

13.2.4. Text to speech aids

13.2.5. Specialized keyboards with fewer choices

14. Visual Impairment, including blindness

14.1. Tech Assists

14.1.1. Teach the child to read and write in Braille

14.1.2. CCTV for long reading/Hand magnifier for short reading

14.1.3. Bold lined paper/felt tip pens for clarity

14.2. Modifications

14.2.1. Make the classroom safe to navigate

14.2.2. Engage with an orientation and mobility specialist (O&M)

14.2.3. Large print text in assignments and books

14.2.4. Allow for extra time on tests