Vernacular Architecture

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Vernacular Architecture by Mind Map: Vernacular Architecture

1. Asia

1.1. Hong Kong

1.1.1. The Pawn, Wanchai

1.1.2. Comic Home Base, Wanchai

1.1.3. Kwong Yuen Estate

1.1.3.1. instead of a/c shopping complex, open-air commercial area

1.1.3.2. human scale buildings (2 storey), planning, railings

2. Tradition vs modernity

2.1. Without tradition there is no modernity?

2.1.1. Tradition and modernity are two sides of the same coin: no society referred to it self as traditional before the first few centuries... ----- Nezar AlSayyad

2.2. not meaningful for us to fall into the binary systems (modern/tradition, vernacular/monumental). Relation is more important than others

2.3. most modern architecture does not respond to the tradition of architecture....but by the economy

2.4. examples of good mix of old and new

2.4.1. Beyond Bending - isntallation by ETH at Venice Biennale 2016

3. Culture

3.1. Definition

3.2. Catalyst?

3.2.1. TS Eliot considered feelings and emotions as catalyst for art. What is the catalyst for v.a.?

3.2.1.1. necessities?

3.3. "Tradition cannot be inherited, and if you want it, you must obtain it by great labour." -- TS Eliot

3.3.1. Is it worth keeping if it requires hard labour? If it has lost its present cultural value.

3.3.2. Should we not just evolve with times and move forward with "modernisation"?

3.3.3. Tradition: more than just the physical architecture itself, but also the meanings associated, the reasons why it was built this way

3.3.4. That means the tradition also increases in value as time goes by (and labour is added to it)

3.4. Meanings

3.4.1. High-level

3.4.1.1. thoughts and beliefs in the sacred, cosmologies, world view and the relationship between human and nature

3.4.2. Medium-level

3.4.2.1. individual/communal identities, values, class/ status, relations of power

3.4.3. Low-level

3.4.3.1. pragmatics, cues on how the space is being used/inhabited, the literal arrangements/design intentions

3.4.4. What about the typical residential towers in hk? What do you think about the high/medium-level meanings associated with these tower blocks?

3.4.4.1. standardisation, efficiency

3.4.4.2. non-hierarchical, anonymous

3.4.4.3. top-down design/management, capitalist?

3.5. Sustainability

3.5.1. aims to leave behind inheritance for future generations

3.5.2. helps us connect to a place through the values and identity

3.5.3. to achieve this the culture needs to evolve and take up new meanings as time goes by

3.5.4. eg Cantonese teahouse?

4. Globalisation

4.1. Homogenisation

4.1.1. is it always bad? or are we after something else? ie the problem is not with the same form + appearance

5. Materials

5.1. manufactured

5.1.1. clay

5.1.2. glass

5.1.3. cast iron

5.1.4. metal sheets

5.1.5. reinforced concrete

5.2. natural

5.2.1. into landscape

5.2.1.1. cliffside caves

5.2.1.2. sunken caves

5.2.2. earth

5.2.2.1. eg Fujian tulous

5.2.2.2. sometimes mixed with lime, brown sugar solution, glutinous rice paste, straw, sand, stone particles

5.2.2.3. using formwork like slipform

5.2.3. dried plants

5.2.4. trees

5.2.4.1. actually might not be that sustainable. as it will cause extinction of trees

5.2.5. animal products

5.3. methods/ workmanship

5.3.1. knowledge is shared and passed along generations

5.3.2. systems / worker unions / apprenticeship

5.3.3. retention of this knowledge is important in terms of maintenance of these trad. buildings

5.4. ritual & traditions

5.4.1. fengshui

5.4.2. protecting people from evil spirits

5.4.3. each stage of the construction process

5.4.4. positioning of building

5.4.5. dimensioning

5.4.5.1. foot, zhou etc

5.5. modernisation of these cultures

6. fengshui

6.1. third meaning?

6.2. Xing Shi - form and configuration

6.3. Li Qi - cosmic breath

6.4. fengshui master are like masterbuilders

6.5. aid man in his interpretation of nature

7. Landscape

7.1. nature/nurture?

7.1.1. landscapes can be designed and created from scratch, and can grow old and fall into decay. ----- UC Berkeley Prof

7.2. "These ordinary, or vernacular landscapes, which generally evolve unintentionally and represent multiple layers of time and cultural activity,  -----Professor Melnick,

7.3. definition

7.3.1. created by people...developed with or without the direct involvement of "professional designers"

7.3.2. According to the NPS: "Historic Vernacular Landscape: a landscape that evolved through use by the people whose activities or occupancy shaped that landscape. "

7.3.3. Apart from physical constructs, I believe vernacular landscape can also be found to be a pattern that regularly occurs, that displays how human work with nature.

7.3.3.1. floating market in Thailand

8. guilds and apprenticeships

8.1. There were many guilds and apprenticeships related to the building of vernacular architecture in the past. It shows us that professional builders were highly respected in the past. They also had many secret skills and knowledge that were only passed down orally, which some say is a contributing factor to the discipline declining today. In the light of non-material heritage, scholars would love to have these extensively researched and documented. However once these confidential knowledge have been publicised that will immediately lead to the death of these disciplines. In your opinion, should the research be encouraged?

9. Definition

9.1. Derived by those dissatisfied with urban, industrialised life... Of later years, the study of v.a. has been... on the psychology and mythology of trditional man-made spaces -----JB Jackson

9.2. more to do with process than style

9.3. constant changing process

9.4. active participation from inhabitants

9.5. design-feedback infinite loop

9.6. architecture can be described as vernacular when the process of formation and existence of it reflects the local culture, identity, daily activities of the inhabitants

10. Rural vernacular

10.1. charactersitics

10.1.1. conversation with the nature

10.2. architecture without architects?

10.3. what about new immigrants arriving at a rural village. will it lose its value?

11. Urban vernacular

11.1. 1.what buildings constitute the urban vernacular?

11.1.1. dense pop'n

11.2. 2.how does the character of a city depend on its vernacular buildings?

11.2.1. streets are the extension of houses

11.2.1.1. it seems that the streets also play a very important role...Can we only study the vernacular architecture (buildings) as separated from the streets?

11.2.1.1.1. Forum responses from others

11.2.1.1.2. We can study them as a separate things in term of the materials and functions. However, it is the street that connects and bring life to the buildings, hence, it plays an important role as a complete vernacular analysis.

11.2.1.1.3. buildings and streets both rely on each other to construct as the set unique identities.

11.2.1.1.4. Streets, depends on their function defines the boundary of buildings. Commercial streets, especially pedestrian zones, like Sai Yeung Choi Street in Mongkok and Shinsaibashi in Osaka, are usually extensions of shops from the buildings next to it. The space of the street is not only the extension of ground shops but also links to shops on second or third floor of the buildings. Besides, streets can also be busy roads filled with traffic. These streets, or in the name of roads most of the time, are dividing building blocks. Sometimes this is not only spatial dividers but also social dividers. Examples are readily available. Therefore, it is crucial to understand a vernacular building with its context, the streets and potentially the buildings next to it.

11.3. 3.how do urban vernacular buildings and landscapes support daily life of the cities?

11.4. 4.what are some of the Asian urban vernacular building types?

11.4.1. shophouses

11.4.1.1. long narrow tall house 2-4 storeys high, 5-7m wide

11.4.2. bungalows

11.4.2.1. pitched roofs

11.4.3. habitation + production

11.4.4. townhouse (japanese machiya)

11.4.4.1. party-wall building

11.4.4.2. no more than two storeys tall

11.4.5. nepalese houses

11.4.5.1. cattle on g/f and people on 1/f

11.4.5.2. process of grains also on 1/f

11.4.5.3. stone and mud construction with timber frames. generally 3 storeys high

11.4.6. type and human activity evolve together

11.5. 5. the processes through which the urban vernacular is built?

11.5.1. so are podium-towers vernacular?

11.5.1.1. I wonder if the urban vernacular might be found more in the ways we utilise space instead of the built form of architecture? eg Shophouses are urban vernacular types, and these are especially interesting when they combine the two uses (commerical and residential) in the same space. Divided flats are also another urban vernacular types, though perhaps it is not so much the built form (the 50sqft room) that we are interested in, but maybe how they perform their daily activities within the space. So perhaps to answer this question we should look beyond the built form and look into the pattern of activities?

11.5.2. how about architecture built and designed by professionals?

11.6. people

11.6.1. migrants

11.6.2. people looking for jobs from rural areas

12. WHY living in cities

12.1. economic opportunities

13. Informal settlement

13.1. where

13.1.1. outskirts of city

13.1.2. near rivers and banks

13.2. part of the rural-to-urban relocation process

13.3. what is legal what is not? ideology control....

13.4. "In each case, the building culture is a highly organized and predictable system ... All aspects of the system are self-regulating, through local market forces, social pressure, and the constraints that come out of available materials and techniques."

13.4.1. Yet these communities are classified as "informal", perhaps due to the failure to meet statutory regulations. And the state of being unrecognised, ungoverned perhaps has aggravated the unlawful buying-dividing-and-renting-out of land by the "shadow developers" also mentioned in the article. So do you think the government should do more to recognise/legalise these sprouting vernacular communities so that it can provide the basic civil services to its inhabitants?

13.5. HK examples

13.5.1. Kowloon Walled City

13.5.2. rooftop houese

13.5.3. Pokfulam Village

13.6. world examples

13.6.1. Medellin

13.6.1.1. cable car

13.6.1.2. "Crime rates in Santo Domingo plunged and area investment skyrocketed. In the four years since Linea K opened, crime in Santo Domingo virtually disappeared, jobs have increased 300% and 3 banks have opened along the Metrocable route."

13.6.1.3. to what degree would legalisation stiffen the flexibility and adaptability of informal settlements?

14. Conservation

14.1. VS Preservation

14.1.1. Preservation= maintaining the same Conservation = creative, forward-looking

14.2. Gentrification

14.2.1. Lee Tung Street

14.2.2. inevitable? cos you need the capital

14.2.3. Private-public partnerships

14.3. 1. Identify the significant characters

14.4. We can respond to the future not merely by saving things for it and by being adaptable to it but also by creating it. ----Kevin Lynch

15. hoigaku