My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

1.1. The Four Elements of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual - Purpose is to teach basic cognitive skills, to transmit specific knowledge, and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills.

1.1.2. 2. Political - Purpose is to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order, to prepare citizens who will participate in in this political order, help assimilate diverse cultural groups, and to teach children basic laws of the society.

1.1.3. 3. Social - Purpose is to help solve social problems, to work as one of many institutions, to ensure social cohesion, and to socialize students into various roles.

1.1.4. 4. Economic - Purpose is to prepare students for their later occupational roles.

1.2. Conservative Perspective

1.2.1. Role of the School - School should provide the necessary educational training to ensure the students receive the necessary tools to maximize economic and social productivity.

1.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance - Achievement of the students is based on hard work and sacrifice.

1.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems - The decline of standards, cultural literacy, values, civilizations, and authority.

2. Chapter 3: The History of Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. The Emergence of Public High School: Public High Schools have had a huge impact on the history of education. Most families are unable to afford private education for their children and public schools are the only option. Before the emergence of public high schools furthering one's educations was just simply an option. Today, it is mandatory for those sixteen and under. Public schools give education to all. I believe that is a huge turning point in the history of education. Everyone deserves the opportunity to learn and receive education.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. Conservative Perspectives: Some critics from this movement argued that U.S schools were mediocre and that students knew very little. Most supporters of this movement agree with the democratic-liberal goal of equality of opportunity and mobility through education. They believe that the pursuit of social and political objectives result in harm to the academic goals of schooling. One thing that all critics can agree on is that the evolution of U.S. education has resulted in dilution of academic excellence.

3. Chapter 4: The Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functionalism: Picture a society that stresses the interdependence of the social system. Often examines how well each part is integrated and how well they work together. Views the society as a "machine" (all parts work together for a common goal to make society work.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory: Social order is not based on agreement of all parts, rather is is based on dominant groups imposing their will through force, cooperation, and manipulation.

3.1.3. Interactional Theory: An extension of the functional and conflict perspectives. A analysis that helps in understanding the "big picture" of education. Does not take into consideration the every day behaviors of teachers and students.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Teacher Behavior: it is vital for teachers to have a positive impact of their students. This not only influences their self- esteem, but their academic achievements. When teachers push their students harder and praise them on their work the outcome is significant in the lives of the students.

3.2.2. Student Peer Groups and Alienation: Every school has "cliques" depending on which one you associate with can greatly impact you as a student. Most do not want to be considered a nerd and would rather be in the "cool" or "athletic" group. Some involve themselves in a rebellious group that leads to violence. Violence is something that is more and more common in our culture and in turn is effecting our students.

3.2.3. Inadequate Schools: Some schools do not appropriately educate the students in a way that will prepare them for their future lives. This greatly impacts the student . One of the main purposed of the education system is to prepare the students for life after school

3.2.4. Education and Inequality: It is essential for schools to execute the idea of equality. Differences in students include race and income status. No differences such as these should make a difference in a student's education or how they are educated. If students are not treated equally in the classroom that will negatively affect their experiences in the classroom.

3.2.5. Tracking: Track placement affects cognitive development in students. Tracking places students based on their academic abilities. Those in lower tracks experience more alienation from teachers than high track students.

4. Chapter 5: The Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism: focuses mainly on consciousnesses, perception, and meaning. Those who support this philosophy say that we are put on Earth alone and have to make the best of it. Key researchers include Soren Kierkegaurd, Martin Buber, and John Paul Sarte. This philosophy states that the goal of education should be mainly focused on the needs of the individuals. They also believe that education is an activity that should separate us from the chaotic world. They believe the role of the teacher is to take risks, and to work to make students "wide awake". The role of the teacher should be a very personal role. The method of instruction involves the teacher studying the different learning styles of their students and finding out what works best for each child. Existentialism focuses the curriculum mainly on literature, art, drama, and music. All of which are subjects that students can have personal connections to.

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders In MY District

5.1.1. Alabama State Senator : Richard Shelby

5.1.2. Alabama House of Representatives : Mac McCutcheon ( Speaker of the House), Victor Gaston (Speaker Pro Tempore), and Jeffery Woodard (Clerk of the House).

5.1.3. Alabama State Superintendent : Michael Sentance

5.1.4. Alabama State School Board President : Governor Kay Ivey

5.1.5. Local Superintendent : Johnathan Hatton

5.1.6. Members On Local School Board : Barbara Cornelius, Jerry Fulmer, Terry Holden, Ronnie Owens,

5.2. Elements of Change Within School Processes and Cultures :

5.2.1. Because schools are deeply political, change within them is very difficult. Examples include; teachers, represented by their union, have a lot to say about the conditions of their employment. Local board members often struggle with the teachers in terms of pay, standards, etc.

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Social Meliorist: This theory stresses the idea that the role of the curriculum is to move students to become aware of societal problems. It also stresses for students to become active in changing the world. It proposes that school curriculum should help solve problems, and it could possibly change society.

6.2. Dominant Traditions

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition: based on the idea that education should transmit specific knowledge to students. The method for doing so is through the didactic method. Essentially it is the belief that learning in the classroom is done by both the student and the teacher.

6.2.2. Transformative Tradition: belief that the purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way. They reject the idea of the teacher student relationship that the mimetic tradition holds.

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Factors Impacting Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class: Education favors wealthier families. Getting higher education can be very expensive. This is why a student's parental income and their education are correlated. Many occurrences show that teachers tend to favor students from a higher income level.

7.1.2. Race: An individual's race directly impacts how much education he or she is likely to have. It is proven that minority students receive fewer educational opportunities.

7.1.3. Gender: It has been proven that females are less likely to drop out of school than males. It has also been viewed that females are better students than males.

7.2. Coleman Study 1982

7.2.1. 1. Are private schools better? Most studies seem to say so, but could this be wrong? Yes there are benefits to a private school, but what about the students from low income families.

7.2.2. 2. It seems as though where a student attends school is greatly impacted by their culture and race.

8. Chapter 9: Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences :

8.1.1. *Research shows that African American students do less well in school. This is because they adapt to their oppressed position inside the classroom. These ideas or based off those of John Ogbu.

8.1.2. * More research based off John Ogbu's is that school success requires that African American students must deny their cultural identity and accept the dominant culture. This is the only means in which they will succeed.

8.2. Educational Inequality:

8.2.1. School Financing: Depending on the location of the school will depend on the amount of money that school will receive. Therefore, a school that is located in a low income area will not receive much money to aide their school.

8.2.2. Curriculum and Ability Grouping: Students who are close to the same reading level get grouped together. While students who are falling behind in reading get grouped together.

8.2.3. Gender: In most cases, girls are seen as being the "smarter" gender. Boys are seen as the trouble makers or the slackers and do not get the same treatment.

8.2.4. Curriculum Practices: Different schools may offer different methods of curriculum. Students who do not go to a school with the most up to date methods are left behind.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Charter Schools: Public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools. Known as "swap red tape for results". Some argue that they provide a more effective school experience for all who are involved.

9.1.2. Vouchers: Voucher advocates argue that this reform will have many educational impacts, as well as providing fair opportunities for all.

9.2. Harlem Children's Zone: Placed to ensure all African American children were ready and prepared for education. (Founded by Geoffrey Canada.) This program mainly focuses on reading and how it can improved your overall educational expeirence

9.3. Full Service and Community Schools: Focuses on educating the entire community. It is specifically designed to target and improve at-risk neighbors. The goal is to mend and repair social issues.