Ways to express future

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Ways to express future af Mind Map: Ways to express future

1. Present Simple

1.1. Timetables

1.1.1. My train leaves at 11.30, so I need to be at the station by 11.15

1.2. After certain expressions of time (by the time, as soon as, until etc.)

1.2.1. By the time they reach York, they will have been travellingfor four hours

1.3. To give or ask for instructions

1.3.1. Where do I get an application form?

1.4. First conditional (if-clause)

1.4.1. If you don’t hurry, we will miss the train.

2. Present Continuous

2.1. Arrangements, plans

2.1.1. He is having dinner with Kate on Friday.

3. Be going to

3.1. Intention

3.1.1. Are you going to watch the late film on TV tonight?

3.2. Prediction based on present evidence

3.2.1. Look at those black clouds! It’s going to rain.

3.3. Element of warning

3.3.1. Look out! You are going to spill your coffee!

4. Future Simple

4.1. Simple factsto the future

4.1.1. It will be cold in the evening

4.2. Succession of actions in the future

4.2.1. I`ll ring you up and tell you everything

4.3. Decision made at the time of speaking

4.3.1. ‘Did you phone Lucy?’ ‘Oh no, I forgot. I’ll phone her now.’

4.4. Habitual actions in the future

4.4.1. He will stay with us as often as possible

4.5. Actions which will definitely happenin the future and which we cannot control

4.5.1. The temperature will reach 40oC tomorrow

4.6. In predictions about the future based on what we think (to give an opinion), believe, or imagine

4.6.1. I`m afraidwe won`t beon time for the meeting

4.6.2. In the year 2020 people will drive electric cars.

4.7. With "when" when it is used as a question word

4.7.1. When will you get married?

4.8. First conditional (main clause)

4.8.1. If he is having a meeting at the moment, I will call him later

5. Future Continious

5.1. Prediction of an action in progress

5.1.1. The government will be making a statement about the crisis later today.

5.2. Plans made in the past

5.2.1. This time next week I’ll be lying on the beach or swimming in the sea.

5.3. Events that are part of a routine

5.3.1. Don’t phone between 6 and 7. We’ll be having dinner.

5.4. To describe something we believe to be the case now

5.4.1. You can`t interrupt her now. She`ll be getting ready to go on stage.

5.5. To ask politely about someone`s plans

5.5.1. Will you be writing to Oliver?

5.6. To denote an action the occurrence of which is expected by the speaker.

5.6.1. She says she`ll be seeing you tomorrow

6. Future Perfect

6.1. Prediction about a completed action in the future

6.1.1. We’re late. The film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.

7. Future Perfect Continuous

7.1. Action which will still be in progress at a point in the future

7.1.1. By 2040, people will have been using mobile phones for over half a century.

8. For promises,threats, warnings, requests, hopes, offers, plans and intentions with the verbs: decide, hope, promise, swear, guarantee, intend, plan, arrange, mean

8.1. We intend to buy a bigger flat

8.2. I hope to see everyone at the next Open Day

9. Modal verb WILL

9.1. To give an order or make a request

9.1.1. Will you stop talking, please?

9.2. To ask for information

9.2.1. What time will we get into London?

9.3. To express unwillingness or an emphatic refusal

9.3.1. The washing machine won`t work

10. Modal verb SHALL

10.1. To make an offer

10.1.1. Shall I do the washing up for you?

10.2. To make a suggestion

10.2.1. Shall we go out for dinner tonight?

10.3. Suggestions or instructions, or offer services

10.3.1. Shall I take your coat?

10.4. In legal language (documents, contracts) to express obligation

10.4.1. The hire shall be responsible for maintenance of the vehicle

11. BE DUE TO

11.1. For timetabled events, usually with a time or date

11.1.1. Their flight is due to arriveat 6:15.

12. BE (NOT) TO + INFINITIVE= MUST (NOT)

12.1. Official arrangements (official plans and fixed arrangements)

12.1.1. The Prime Minister is to visit Poland next Monday.

12.2. To give orders, commands, instructuins

12.2.1. You are to doy our homework before you go to bed.

12.2.2. You are not to disturbthe head teacher while the inspectors are here next week.

12.3. In `if clauses` when the event in the `if clause` is depend on the event in the main clause

12.3.1. If tennis in this country is to improve, more money and commitment will be necessary

12.4. In writing, especially in news articles and headlines

12.4.1. East Enders stars are to marry.

13. BE SUPPOSED TO DO

13.1. In spoken English, especially in questions

13.1.1. What am I supposed to do now?

14. BE ABOUT TO

14.1. To talk about an event that we intend or expect to happenin the near future

14.1.1. I was about to leave the house when the phone rang.

15. BE ON THE POINT OF+ Ving/ noun BE ON THE VERGE OF + Ving / noun

15.1. Something is very close to happening

15.1.1. Because of the erosion of their habitats, some species are on the verge of extinction

16. IMMINENT, FORTHCOMING,IMPENDING

16.1. The idea of `in the near future`

16.1.1. A decision from the judges is imminent and expect further news within the hour

17. BE LIKELY/UNLIKELY TO + INFINITIVE

17.1. To say that something in the future is probable/improbable

17.1.1. They`re unlikely to arrive before six. The traffic is always awful on Fridays.

18. BE SURE/BOUND/CERTAIN TO + INFINITIVE

18.1. Something is going to happen or should have been expected

18.1.1. He is bound to fail the exam

18.2. Imperatives (not BE BOUND TO)

18.2.1. Be sure/certain to giveme a call when you arrive at the hotel

19. ANTICIPATE, PREDICT, ENVISAGE + NOUN/Ving

19.1. We anticipate congestion on all routes this weekend.

20. ARRANGE, EXPECT, GUARANTEE, PLAN, UNDERTAKE + (NOUN) + TO + INFINITIVE

20.1. Can you arrange to be here at 6 o`clock?

21. MAY, MIGHT, SHOULD

21.1. Degree of possibilityin the future

21.1.1. Rankin`s latest blockbuster might winthe Golden Dagger award for crime fiction.