Personality approaches

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Personality approaches af Mind Map: Personality approaches

1. Humanistic approach

1.1. Humanism: Is toted both to the pessimistic determinism psychoanalysis its emphasis on psychological disturbance. It does not suggest that psychanalytic, behaviorist and other points of view are incorrect but argues that perspectives do not recognize the depth and meaning of human experience and fail to recognize the innate capacity for self-directed change and transforming personal experiences.

1.2. Maslow: Studied people who considered to be healthy, creative and productive, including Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and others. They share similar characteristics: Being open, Creative, loving, spontaneous, compassionate, concerned for others, and accepting themselves. He is the one who is proposed Maslow´s hierarchy of needs theory, the top being self-actualization.

1.3. Rogers: the response to the question, “Who am i?” the answer can show how you see yourself. If your response is primarily positive, then you tend to feel good about who you are, and you see the worlds as a safe and positive place. If your response is mainly negative, then you feel unhappy with who you are.

2. Biological approaches

2.1. BODY TYPE AND TEMPERAMENT: William H. Sheldon: He proposed 3 body/ personality types (somatotypes):

2.1.1. 1.Ectomorphs: anxious, artistic, thoughtful. 2. Endomorphs: relaxed, humores, social. 3. Mesomorphs: adventurous, fearless, curious, aggressive.

2.2. Biological approach

2.2.1. Temperament: Environmental factors can change the expression of personality of children: Hard, slow to warm up Easy.

2.2.2. Dimensions: Reactivity: how we respond to new environments or challenges. Self regulation: how we control the response given from reactivity.

2.3. Minnesota study of twins and temperament

2.3.1. In studying 350 pairs of twins, researchers found that identical twins, whether raised together or not, have very similar personalities. This suggests the heritability, which is the proportion of difference among people that it attributed to genetics .

3. Traits approach

3.1. THE FIVE FACTOR MODEL: In psychological trait theory, the Big Five personality traits, also known as the five-factor model and the OCEAN model, is a suggested taxonomy, or grouping, for personality traits, developed from the 1980s onwards.

4. Cultural understanding of personality

4.1. Personality is made up of genetic and environmental factors. The culture you live in is one of the most important environmental factors that shapes your personality. The term culture refers to all the beliefs, customs, art, and traditions of a particular society.

4.1.1. Personality factors : conscious , neocriticism , openness , collectives and extroversion In all culture

4.1.1.1. Openness This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight. Conscientiousness Standard features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, good impulse control, and goal-directed behaviors Extraversion Extraversion (or extroversion) is characterized by excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. Agreeableness This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors. Neuroticism Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability.

5. Historical perspective

5.1. NEO- FREUDIANS: ADLER: Three fundamental social treats: Occupational task Societal task Love task The importance of social connection: GOAL: “To recognise the egual rights of others.”

5.2. ERIKSON: 1.Trust vs. Mistrust: this stage begins at birth until the birth year, depending on the bond formed, this will determine the future links established with people. sensations: confidence, vulnerability, frustration, satisfaction, security. 2.Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt:This stage begins at the year of birth until age 3, begins to control and exercise the muscles related to body excretions, this process may have moments of doubt and embarrassment Sensations: autonomy and independence. 3.Initiative vs. Guilt: from 3 to 6 years old, a great development takes place (physically as well as mentally), he wants to relate to other children and tests his skills and abilities, they are curious. They become guilty if parents react negatively to questions. 4.Industry vs. Inferiority: from 7 to 11 years old, they begin to show great interest in the way things work and try to do activities putting themselves to the test both physically and mentally, the peer group becomes more relevant, if it is not well received or its failure is compared, you get a feeling of inferiority. 5.Identity vs. Role Confusion: between 12-18 years (adolescence), begins to ask frequently: Who am I ?, show more independence, distance themselves more from parents, spend more time with friends and think about the future (than studying, working , live, etc.). Their identity is based on their experiences, it is normal that they are confused. 6.Intimacy vs. Isolation: Between 19-30 years old, relationships change, prioritizing offering and requiring a reciprocal commitment, a secure and trustworthy intimacy, if it is avoided it can generate loneliness or isolation ending in depression. 7.Generativity vs. Stagnation: from 30 to 65 years old, the person dedicates his time to his family, they seek the balance between productivity and bonding, linked to the future of their own and the next generations to feel useful, they can feel useless if they do not concentrate their effort to to offer something. 8.Integrity vs. Despair: from 65 years onwards stop being productive or stop being very efficient, life is totally altered, friends and family die, the grief caused by old age is faced.

5.3. JUNG: Jung developed the theory called analytical psychology that is based on working to balance opposing forces of conscious and unconscious thought. Collective Unconscious Holding mental patterns or memory traces , which are common to all of us, they are called archetypes and appear on culture, arts, literature,dreams , etc Extrovert / Introvert balance between both served self realization. An extrovert person is someone that catch the attention, outgoing,etc and an introvert is usually a Shy person that goes lay low. The persona A mask that we adopt, is created from conscious experiences and collective unconscious. Who yo pu really are and who society expects you to be.

5.4. HORNEY: Normal growth can be blocked by basic anxiety stemming from needs not being met such as childhood experiences of loneliness and or isolation. Copying styles: Moving towards people Relies on the children that become dependent to their parents or other caregiver in order to receive attention and affection. Moving against people Relies on aggression and assertiveness which means that children often deal they're unhappy home situation by bullying and harming other people. Moving away from people Relies on detachment and isolation which means that children handle their anxiety by withdrawing from the world and be alone and they tend to be self sufficient.

6. BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE:

6.1. SKINNER: Skinner. He believed that environment was solely responsible for all behavior, including the enduring, consistent behavior patterns studied by personality theorists. We demonstrate a consistent behavior pattern because we have developed certain response tendencies. We increased behaviors that lead positive consequences and decrease the behaviors that lead negative consequences. Personality develops our entire life.

6.2. BANDURA (SOCIAL COGNITIVE) Social-Cognitive Theory: Emphasizes both learning and cognition as sources of individual differences in personality Reciprocal Determinism: Cognitive process, behavior and context interact influencing and being influenced by other simultaneously Observational learning: We learn by observing someone else's behavior and it's consequences, it plays a part in the development Of our personality Self Efficacy: Our level of confidence affects how we approach our challenges and reach goals