EXPLORING SCL CONCEPTS

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1. PARAMETER 1: INNOVATIVE TEACHING This has, as its main focus, the manner in which students are best able to learn and which promotes teaching methods which lead them to do so. Th is fi rst parameter underlies the rationale of continuous professional development for teachers, which together with enough elbow room to adapt teaching methods, can achieve the desired SCL approach

1.1. Team Learning: Also known as cooperative learning ̧ this is one of many ways used to get students to be responsible for their own learning (Felder et al, 1996). Th is enables them to interact with course-mates, sharing their ideas and supporting each other in the way they learn.

1.2. Problem-Based Learning: Hailed as a method of teaching which enables students to learn more eff ectively, this method is based on the premise that by applying the knowledge they gain early on during the course of their learning (thus not merely at exam time), students are more exposed to situations they would normally face outside of the classroom and can thus become more adaptable.

1.3. Student Self-Regulated Learning: Th is method ensures that students take their own steps in order to learn, but that they ‘also ... take care of their own monitoring, motivation and feedback process during and aft er learning’ (Van Eekelen et al, 2005; 451). Zimmerman (2002, p.66) presents eight skills, which are important in identifying student characteristics in self- regulated learning, namely - 1. Sett ing specifi c goals for oneself; 2. Adopting powerful strategies for att aining these goals; 3. Monitoring one’s performance; 4. Restructuring one’s learning environment to make it compatible with one’s goals; 5. Managing one’s time eff ectively; 6. Self-evaluating one’s methods; 7. Att ributing results to causation; and 8. Adapting future methods.

1.4. Many of the above components are part of active learning , which refers to anything fundamentally being anything other than passively listening to a teacher.

2. DOCUMENT 3B: A COURSE DESCRIPTION BY WILLY ASTRUP: "Challenging Focus of Teaching in Higher Education: Academic Learning and Personal Development in context"-The course enhances students' knowledge on relevant dimensions of higher education as a specific aspect of human development. Academic learning taking place in the institutional framework of universities is based on scientific disciplinarian and interdisciplinary knowledge, which is acquired by students in an interactive process. Aspects of the teaching and learning environment and students' personality development are looked at. Upon completion of this course each student should be able to: - Identify the essential theoretical approaches to human learning (having reviewed contributions in different disciplines as well as in interdisciplinary discourses); - develop a coherent conceptual framework; - understand in depths the role of the university as part of human civilization as well as the university’s preserving and innovative role in culture and society.

2.1. Relating newly gained theoretical insights to ones own past learning experiences and to future approaches to study and learning development will be encouraged. The course will be organized according to the model of John Biggs’ and Catherine Tang’s : constructive alignment approach connecting intended learning outcomes (ILOs) and teaching /learning activities (TLAs).

3. DOCUMENT 1: SCL ACCORDING TO STUDY ENTITLED "TIME FOR A NEW PARADIGM IN EDUCATION: STUDENT-CENTRED LEARNING" The European Students Union- This publication is part of the project »Time for a New Paradigm in Education: Student Centered Learning«, funded with support from the European Commission http://www.highereducation.si/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/SCL.pdf

3.1. Document 2: The original project- "Time for a New Paradigm in Education: Student Centred Learning (T4SCL)" (http://www.highereducation.si/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/SCL.pdf )

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3.2. PARAMETERS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED FOR SCL: one can identify some core aspects of SCL, which have been agreed upon in literature on this topic and which are referred to in the following as the parameters

3.2.1. PARAMETER 2: LEARNING OUTCOMES This is identified in relevant literature as being the second parameter of SCL. . Learning outcomes can be defined as the knowledge, skills and understanding a student would be expected to acquire as a result of the learning experience.

3.2.1.1. With the use of learning outcomes, the focus shifts from what the teacher is able to teach to what the achievements and level of understanding of the students are expected to be. Th e design of learning outcomes normally employs high usage of active verbs portraying what is expected to be learnt.

3.2.1.1.1. EXAMPLE TEMPLATE FOR PRODUCING LEARNING OUTCOMES: 1. The wording of a learning outcome may be modifi ed ... relevant to a particular discipline; 2. Th e outcomes are independent of mode or method of delivery; 3. Providers of courses will only need to provide evidence that the outcomes have been achieved at least once during the programme of study; 4. The outcomes represent a minimum menu independent of time allocation, academic importance and worth, and frequency of achievement; and 5. A professional body may set its own standards of achievement expected for each learning outcome: for some disciplines a competency may be required; for others awareness could suffi ce (ibid, p.218)

3.2.2. PARAMETER 3: SYSTEM OF TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION OF CREDITS This represents the third parameter of SCL . The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation (ECTS) system is a tool of this type - [ECTS] ... is a tool which enables students to collect credits for learning achieved through higher education. ECTS is a learner-centred system which aims to increase transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes’ (European Commission, 2010)

3.2.3. PARAMETER 4: FLEXIBLE CURRICULA AND LEARNING PATHS This represents the fourth parameter of SCL, which is in turn very closely linked to the use of a system of transferable and accumulable credits. Maintaining flexible curricula and allowing students to determine their learning paths empowers them to make their own decisions in constructing their learning, and also encourages them to take responsibility for their own learning.

3.2.3.1. Th is is congruent with the notion of lifelong learning, in allowing students to build their learning path in a manner that suits their needs...In this respect, HEIs, in promoting the use of SCL across their respective institutions, need to ensure that student input on curricula is ensured across all disciplines within the wider philosophy of the SCL approach. This will serve to enhance the relevance and usefulness of curricula in terms of the students’ needs, aspirations and potential.

3.3. THE DRIVERS ( Recommendations) OF SCL: The use of the lifelong learning (LLL) agenda, embedded within the Bologna Process as well as the Lisbon Strategy of the EU, has been emphasised at European, national and institutional levels. This has been a key driver of SCL, given the rise of the notion that one continues to learn throughout life, even aft er obtaining the highest possible tertiary education qualification.

4. Document 4: ”eDigital Information Literacy: Supported Development of Capability in Tertiary Environments" (http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/80628/Digital-Information-Literacy-Research-Report-FINAL-pdf.pdf)

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5. Document 3: SCL ACCORDING TO WORKSHOP BY WILLY ASTRUP: A Challenging Focus of Teaching in Higher Education: Academic Learning and Personal Development - The workshop aims at providing a platform to gain deeper knowledge on a conditio sine qua non for the European Higher Education Area in fulfilling its aim to become a sustainable and creative success story: student-centred teaching and learning.

5.1. The Bologna Ministerial Conference in Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve 2009, in its Communiqué. emphasizes the importance of the teaching mission of Higher Education institutions it states: “Student-centred learning requires empowering individual learners, new approaches to teaching and learning, effective support and guidance structures and a curriculum focused more clearly on the learner in all three cycles” (Communiqué p.3)

5.2. TRENDS 2010 speaks of the “cultural challenge” which needs to be met by the “paradigm shift to student-centred learning” and which is perceived as crucial to improve education. (http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/2010_conference/documents/EUA_Trends_2010.pdf)