5015 Mind Map

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1. Week 2: Beginning With The End In Mind

1.1. Higher Order Executive Functioning

1.1.1. Pre-frontal cortex takes 20 years to become fully functional. It controls decision-making, goal setting, controlling attention, cognitive flexibility, information processing, and managing risk-taking

1.2. Executive Function

1.2.1. 3 Areas of Executive Function 1) Working Memory Being able to keep information in mind and then use it in some way 2) Cognitive Flexibility Also known as flexible thinking Being able to think about something in more than one way 3) Inhibitory Control Includes self-control Being able to ignore distractions and resist tempatation

1.2.2. 5 Skills Executive Functioning is Responsible For 1) Paying Attention 2) Organizing and planning 3) Initiating tasks and staying focused 4) Regulating emotions 5) Self-monitoring

2. Week 1:

2.1. Instructional Approaches

2.1.1. Student-centred approach Education is student-driven Constructivist perspective Students construct their own understanding, knowledge and skills using their own cognitive structures

2.1.2. Teacher-centred approach Teacher determines content, provides direction, in charge of setting social and academic tone

2.1.3. My own educational approach is a combination of both because students do need direction from me in many aspects and that I, as the adult, need to be in charge to a certain degree. However, I cannot deny the fact that each of my students has a unique way of learning and set of skills, so who am I to be the sole dictator of how they should learn or be assessed/evaluated.

2.2. Educational Psychology

2.2.1. Definition: Uses knowledge and methods of psychology to study teaching and learning.

2.2.2. Goal: to improve the teaching and learning processes of all students

2.2.3. Topics in Educational Psychology Learning and Cognition Development Social and Cultural Influences Motivation Behaviour/Classroom Management Individual Differences Assessment and Evaluation Teaching and Instruction Psychological Foundations of Curricula

2.3. What It Means to Use Reflective Practise

2.3.1. Focus on teaching in a way that benefits the students the most, not your own pride or preferences

2.3.2. Self-reflective/analytical Being open-minded To change To improvement Assessing the effects of your teaching to improve how you teach your students Change according to whether or not your teaching style or method is working

2.3.3. "Teachers must see their practice in terms of constantly testable hypotheses rather than just as an established or permanent way of being" - page 7 of the textbook "It's called the "teaching practice" not "teaching perfect" - Bill Tucker

2.4. 4 Commonplaces Of Education

2.4.1. Teacher

2.4.2. Topic

2.4.3. Setting

2.4.4. Student

2.5. Top-Down Approach to Curricular Planning

2.5.1. 1) Determine the curricula for the year

2.5.2. 2) Determine the curricula for the term

2.5.3. 3) Break curricula into units

2.5.4. 4) Plan daily lessons

2.5.5. "Planning with the end in mind"

2.6. 10 Best Practises of Teaching

2.6.1. Teach for understanding, appreciation and life application

2.6.2. Address multiple goals simultaneously

2.6.3. Employ inquiry models

2.6.4. Engage students in discourse management

2.6.5. Design authentic activities

2.6.6. Include debriefing

2.6.7. Work with artifacts

2.6.8. Foster metacognition and self-regulated learning

2.6.9. Be aware of trajectories, misconceptions and representations

2.6.10. Recognize the social aspects of learning

3. Week 3: Theories of Learning

3.1. Principles of Development

3.1.1. Orderly progression/gradual process

3.1.2. Periods of rapid and slow growth

3.1.3. Quantitative and qualitative changes

3.1.4. Individuals develop at different rates

3.1.5. Genetics set developmental potential

3.1.6. Environment determines potential realized

3.2. Piaget's Basic Learning Instinct

3.2.1. Schemes/Schemas: oraganizing behavious and thoughts into coherent systems

3.2.2. Adaptation: adjusting to one's surrounding environment

3.3. Cognitive Views of Learning

3.3.1. Belief that mental processes exist and they are crucial to learning

3.3.2. Examples of Mental Processes: thinking, knowing, understanding, remembering, planning, self-monitoring

3.3.3. Learners bring knowledge to each new learning situation, and that affects what they learn from that situation More related knowledge = better learning

3.3.4. In opposition of Behaviourism because it emphasizes mental process

3.3.5. The more students can understand the connections between concepts, break down information and rebuild it with logical connections, then their retention and understanding of the content will increase.

3.4. Behavioural Views

3.4.1. The idea that we have a conscience and can choose what we do or don't do

3.4.2. Unlike Cognitive views, it ignores mental processes and instead argues that all behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment

3.4.3. Classical conditioning (Pavlov): we learn behaviours through association

3.4.4. Operant conditioning (Skinner): the consequences of behaviours reinforces or shapes behaviour

3.4.5. Social Learning Theory by Bandura: people learn from one another through observation, imitation and modelling Influenced by the early behaviourist studies by Skinner

3.5. Social Cognitive and Constructivist Views

3.5.1. Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge – they actively seek meaning

3.5.2. Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning

3.5.3. Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views

3.5.4. Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

3.6. Social Cultural Learning and Reciprocal Determinism

3.6.1. Composed of three factors that influence behavior: the environment, the individual, and the behavior itself.

3.6.2. Individual's behaviour is influenced by both the social world and personal characteristics

4. Week 4: Establish a Positive Learning Environment

4.1. Classroom Management: A thinking and Caring Approach by Barrie Bennett / Peter Smilanch

4.1.1. Proximity

4.1.2. Touch

4.1.3. Student’s Name

4.1.4. Gesture

4.1.5. The Look

4.1.6. The Pause

4.1.7. Ignore

4.1.8. Signal to Begin / Signal for Attention

4.1.9. Deal with the problem not the student

4.2. Ways to develop a Student Profile to see a child's INTERESTS, academic strengths, learning style, ability and learning goals

4.2.1. Observation

4.2.2. Assessment of products

4.2.3. Journals/learning logs

4.2.4. Learning style inventory

4.2.5. Previous report cards

4.2.6. Results of standardized testing

4.2.7. Review of creative work

4.2.8. Information from parents, teachers, peers and self.

4.3. How does the teacher affect student achievement?

4.3.1. 1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning.

4.3.2. 2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ

4.3.3. 3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques

4.4. Good teachers have a SYSTEM

5. Week 5

5.1. How People Learn

5.1.1. Knowledge-Centredness

5.1.2. Learner-Centeredness

5.1.3. Community-Centredness

5.1.4. Assessment-Centredness

5.1.5. How People Learn (HPL) Framework

5.2. What Motivates Students to Learn?

5.2.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

5.2.2. Being able to effectively use learning strategies

5.2.3. Having teacher support

5.2.4. Being required to demonstrate knowledge

5.2.5. Feeling that the teacher cares for them

5.3. The 6 Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy: Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives.

5.3.1. 1. Knowledge

5.3.2. 2. Comprehension

5.3.3. 3. Application

5.3.4. 4. Analysis

5.3.5. 5. Synthesis

5.3.6. 6. Evaluation

5.4. The 6 Cognitive Processes that the Cognitive Verbs (that ndicate the thinking required for particular learning objectives) are classified into

5.4.1. 1. Remembering

5.4.2. 2. Understanding

5.4.3. 3. Applying

5.4.4. 4. Analyzing

5.4.5. 5. Creating

5.4.6. 6. Evaluating

5.5. Backward Design

5.5.1. Developing curricular units and lessons from the same instructional goals/objectives that are used to develop the assessment tools for that curriculum

5.5.2. In otther words, you need to plan with the end in mind. You can't test or assess your studsents on things you did not teach them.

5.6. Constructivist Views of Learning

5.6.1. Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge –they actively seek meaning

5.6.2. Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning

5.6.3. Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views

5.6.4. Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

5.7. Universal Instructional Design

5.7.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

5.7.2. Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students

6. Week 6: Assessment

6.1. Learning Styles: Visual, Kinesthetic, Auditory

6.1.1. I am a visual learner. How something is sorted onto a page effects how well I am able to remember it or understand it. Plus, I tend to create pictures or "movies" in my head while I read or write.

6.2. Assessment for Learning

6.2.1. Assessment guides instruction

6.3. Backwards design

6.4. Enduring understanding

6.5. Teaching for understanding

6.5.1. There should be coherent curriculum design and clear distinctions between big ideas and essential questions.

6.5.2. Teachers should tell students about big ideas and essential questions, performance requirements, and evaluative criteria at the beginning of the unit or course.

6.5.3. Students should be able to describe the goals (big ideas and essential questions) and performance requirements of the unit or course.

6.5.4. The learning environment should have high expectations and incentives for all students to come to understand the big ideas and answer the essential questions.

6.6. How do you know if you assessment was done well?

6.6.1. Multiple opportunities to improve

6.6.2. Clear targets in student friendly language

6.6.3. Students know where they stand and what to do to improve

6.6.4. No marks until the final attempt

6.6.5. Provision of useful and timely feedback

6.6.6. Students able to self and peer assess

6.6.7. Affirmation of capability

7. Week 7

7.1. Effective Feedback

7.1.1. Oral feedback more effective than written feedback

7.1.2. Students who are given comments with their marks make more improvement and feel more satisfied

7.2. Assessment has difference purposes at different times

7.2.1. Can be used to find out what students already know and can do

7.2.2. Can be used to help students improve their learning

7.2.3. Can be used to let students and their parents know how much they have learned within a prescribed amount of time

7.3. Assessment must be planned and purposeful (Has to do with backwards design)

7.3.1. What do I want students to know and be able to do by the end of the course

7.3.2. How will I know that they have learned these things? (Assessment)

7.3.3. What lessons will be most effective in helping students demonstrate that they have learned these things?

7.4. Assessment and instructions are inseparable because effective assessment informs learning

7.5. Labeling Exceptional Students

7.5.1. Disability = inability to do something

7.5.2. Handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations

7.5.3. People-first language: Refer to “students with learning disabilities” NOT “learning disabled students”

7.6. Students need physical and cognitive access to curriculum

7.7. Inclusion

7.7.1. Material is accessible to all

7.7.2. Acceptable of differences

7.7.3. Examples and media used are representative of all students

7.7.4. Instruction focuses on appropriate teacher interventions

8. Week 8: Sociocultural Consideration

8.1. Identity

8.1.1. I am a white cis-gendered able-bodied female who is protestant. I may not have privilege in being a woman, but I do have privilege in other aspects. This is called intersectionality. In urban education, we discuss alot about placing yourself within society and how even if you don't realize it, you bring your own personal and cultural experiences with you to the classroom. It is my job as an educator to always be self-reflective of my own biases, beliefs and micro-aggressions.

8.2. Things to recognize to to increase diversity and inclusion in schools

8.2.1. Different languages spoken

8.2.2. Aboriginal status

8.2.3. One-parent families

8.2.4. Same-sex couples

8.2.5. Newcomers to Canada

8.2.6. Religions practised

8.3. Student Dilemmas

8.3.1. Individualism: Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

8.3.2. Collectivism: Act within a shared identity and common purpose

8.4. Building a culturally responsive practise

8.4.1. Be aware of your own identity, privilege, background , cultural assumptions and microaggressions

8.4.2. Broad cultural knowledge that grows and adapts and changes

8.5. Trends in children from low socioeconomic backgrounds that make it harder for them to succeed in school

8.5.1. Economic hardships

8.5.2. More likely to experience authoritarian parenting style

8.5.3. Scarcity of resources

8.5.4. Development is at risk

8.6. Top Ten Tips for Service Providers Working with Families Living in Poverty

8.6.1. 1. Develop a genuine relationship with me – it is key to supporting me.

8.6.2. 2. In your relationship with me, be empathetic, respectful, and recognize our shared humanity. Push and challenge yourself to ‘walk in my shoes’

8.6.3. to gain a deeper and richer understanding of my situation and life.

8.6.4. 3. Be open-minded and do not judge me.

8.6.5. 4. Recognize and acknowledge how hard it is to live in poverty.

8.6.6. 5. Have realistic expectations of me and my family.

8.6.7. 6. Remember just because I am poor does not mean I am a bad parent.

8.6.8. 7. Remember just because I am poor does not mean I am incompetent.

8.6.9. 8. Do not discriminate against me.

8.6.10. 9. Be an advocate and demand more accessible resources and supports.

8.6.11. 10. Work to reduce the ‘red tape’ and barriers to services and supports

8.7. Aboriginal education risk factors

8.7.1. Early school failures

8.7.2. Moving from school to school

8.7.3. Lack of parent support

8.7.4. Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies

8.7.5. Living in remote communities

8.7.6. Special needs

8.7.7. Lack of resources

9. Week 9: Standardized Testing

9.1. Original purpose of standardized testing was to assess effectiveness of instruction

9.2. Criticisms of Standardized Testing

9.2.1. Biased tests

9.2.2. Stressful for students and teachers

9.2.3. Results in teaching to the test

9.2.4. Takes up too much time

9.2.5. Does not enhance student learning

9.2.6. Content of tests does not reflect instruction

9.3. What classroom and large-scaled assessments should do

9.3.1. Be based on the same curriculum framework

9.3.2. Address the same cognitive demands

9.3.3. Incorporate similar tasks

9.3.4. Use common standards for judging quality of work

9.3.5. Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

9.4. What standardized tests should do

9.4.1. Enhance teaching and learning

9.4.2. Be minimally intrusive

9.4.3. Improve curricular design

9.5. How to prepare students for standardized tests

9.5.1. Convey positive attitudes about testing

9.5.2. Teach test-taking skills

9.5.3. Simulate use of time limits during testing

9.5.4. Familiarize students with types of questions used

9.5.5. Involve students in marking questions of each type

9.6. How to interpret standardized test results

9.6.1. Does the student’s score make sense?

9.6.2. How does the score compare to the

9.6.3. student’s other achievement indicators?

9.6.4. Does the score reveal growth in learning?

9.6.5. Did the student just have a bad day?