LOGICAL FALLACIES II - FALLACIES OF INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE

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LOGICAL FALLACIES II - FALLACIES OF INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE Door Mind Map: LOGICAL FALLACIES II - FALLACIES OF INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE

1. Inappropriate Appeal of Inauthority

1.1. - citing untrustworthy witness i.e.: Mrs Ashley claims the product to be healthy and helpful for weightloss just because her favourite actor says it is healthy for everyone. Unless her favourite actor is a doctor, then only she can claim so.

2. Appeal to ignorance

2.1. - claiming that something is true because no one has proven it false or vice versa.

2.2. i.e.: I guess I didn't get the job. They never called me back.

3. False alternatives

3.1. - posing a false either/or choice

3.2. i.e.: The choice in this election is clear: either we elect a staunch conservative as our next president, or we watch as our country slides into anarchy and economic depression. Clearly, we don’t want our country to slide into anarchy and economic depression. Therefore, we should elect a staunch conservative as our next president.

4. Loaded question

4.1. - posing a question that contains an unfair or unwarranted presuppositions

4.2. i.e.: Al : Are you still dating that total loser Phill? Mary : Yes. Al : Well, at least you admit he's a total loser.

5. Questionable cause

5.1. - claiming, without suffi cient evidence, that one thing is the cause of something else.

5.2. i.e.:. Two days after I drank lemon tea, my head cold cleared up completely. Try it. It works.

6. Hasty generalization

6.1. - drawing a general conclusion from a sample that is biased or too small.

6.2. i.e.: Three out of four school teachers prefer Bright Marks Markers, but I only asked four teachers total.

7. Slippery slope

7.1. - claiming, without suffi cient evidence, that a seemingly harmless action, if taken, will lead to a disastrous outcome.

7.2. i.e.: Today late for ten minutes, tomorrow late for an hour, and then someday you will simply cease to show up.

8. Weak analogy

8.1. - comparing things that aren't really comparable

8.2. i.e.: A Saint Bernard is large, cuddly, furry, and makes a great house pet. A baby grizzly bear is also large, cuddly, and furry. Therefore, a baby grizzly bear would make a great house pet, too.

9. Inconsistency

9.1. - asserting inconsistent or contradictory claims.

9.2. i.e.: There is no evil in this world. Though evil exists in some parts of the world, we will overcome it sooner or later.