My Foundation of Education

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My Foundation of Education por Mind Map: My Foundation of Education

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. an individual's race has a direct impact on how much education they are likely to receive

1.2. At 17, 66% of African American students will be able to read at an intermediate level, compared to 89% of white students

1.2.1. lower reading proficiency = lower SAT scores

1.2.1.1. lower SAT scores = lower college admission rates

1.3. curriculum track placement - working-class and minority students more likely placed in lower tracks, white and affluent students more likely placed in higher tracks

1.3.1. less challenging curriculum, less chance of advanced placement classes, underqualified or less experienced teachers, larger classes, changing schools, less parental involvement = LESS CHANCE FOR ACADEMIC ATTAINMENT

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. The Progressive Movement: a broader program of social and political reform

2.1.1. Focused on individuals

2.1.2. Created meaningful curriculum

2.1.3. Individualized approach

2.1.4. In 1870, 6.5 million children ages 5-18 attended school; in 1880, 15.5 attended.

2.2. Thomas Jefferson: Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge

2.2.1. Free education to all children for the first 3 years of elementary school

2.2.2. Literacy -> intelligence -> informed decisions at the polls

2.3. Dewey: focused of child's interests and developmental level

2.4. Conservative Interpretation: main focus is the traditional academic goals of schooling.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. IDEAL- Functional Theory: interdependence of social system; conflict = breakdown of shared values; encourage social unity

3.1.1. Durkheim: education of critical importance in creating moral unity necessary for social cohesion & harmony; moral values = foundation of society

3.1.2. Most U.S. educators and educational reformers base reform suggestions on this theory (ANAR)

3.2. REALITY - Conflict Theory: dominance prevails over subordinate groups; impose will through force, cooptation, & manipulation; economic, political, cultural, & military power

3.2.1. Marx, Weber

3.2.2. Emphasizes struggle, antagonists, animosity, and hierarchies

3.3. Knowledge & Attitude

3.3.1. Higher social class = higher achievement level

3.3.2. Differences in academic programs & policies = differences in student learning

3.3.3. Academically oriented schools = higher rates of learning

3.3.4. Academic curriculum & consistent discipline = achievement increase

3.3.5. More time dedicated = more learning

3.3.6. More education = more likely to have liberal views; increase in sense of well-being, self-esteem, and social participation

3.4. Employment

3.4.1. More school = greater chance of employment

3.4.2. Not relative to increased job performance; must do job to learn it

3.4.3. Education serves as "gatekeeper"

3.4.4. Significantly related to higher income

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy

4.1. Social Efficiency

4.1.1. Pragmatic (Progressivism)

4.1.2. Focus on societal needs and preparing students to succeed in society

4.1.3. Differentiation

4.2. Developmentalist

4.2.1. Pragmatic (Progressivism) and Existentialism

4.2.2. More focus on individual needs and interests

4.2.3. Experiential learning, teacher = facilitator

4.3. Senators: Jeff Sessions, Richard Shelby

4.3.1. Congressman (5th District): Mo Brooks

4.3.1.1. AL Superintendent: Tommy Bice

4.3.1.1.1. State BOE (District 8): Mary Scott Hunter

4.4. Transformative Pedagogy

4.4.1. change students in some meaningful way

4.4.2. multidimensional theory of teaching

4.4.3. teaching & learning are inextricably linked

4.5. Teachers combine different methods of teaching; what works best for them and their students

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. Federal government made no claim of authority; individual states have authority and responsibility for education

5.1.2. In school districts paid for by property taxes, taxpayers have a stake in the schools in their district through the community school boards

5.1.3. Decentralized

5.2. School system growth -> more centralized

5.2.1. More efficiency

5.2.2. Consolidation = increased number of pupils per school

5.2.3. Negative impact on diversity of students

5.2.4. Superintendents = more powerful

5.2.5. Teachers = less freedom

5.3. Student composition

5.3.1. De facto segregation replaced de jure segregation

5.3.2. Trend towards increasing residential segregation

5.4. The school is a social organism (Waller)

5.4.1. Separate social organization because:

5.4.1.1. Definite population

5.4.1.2. Clearly defined political structure

5.4.1.3. Represent nexus of compact social network

5.4.1.4. Pervaded by a "we feeling"

5.4.1.5. Have a culture of their own

5.5. School-based management: empower teachers in terms of their decision-making capacities about curriculum, discipline, and other academic areas of importance

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Pragmatism

6.1.1. Problem -> Speculative Thought -> Action -> Results

6.1.2. HOW to think, not WHAT to think

6.1.3. Teach problem-solving, inquiry, cooperation, and self-discipline

6.1.4. Francis Bacon, John Locke, and John Dewey

6.2. Some Existentialism

6.2.1. Emphasizes individualism and personal self-fulfillment

6.3. Some Epistemology

6.3.1. Teachers’ life experiences, common sense, social and economic background, education, and general beliefs about people are brought into and reflected through their work.

6.4. MY philosophy

6.4.1. Purpose: both pass down values/teach history and prepare students for advancing society/to make a difference

6.4.2. Role of Teacher: not authoritative, facilitator, encourages, offers suggestions, personal connection with students

6.4.3. Curriculum: Core curriculum, not fixed, changes with social order and students' interests/needs, personal interaction, problems/possibilities and horrors/accomplishments of huimankind

6.4.4. Method of Instruction: inquiry method, group arrangements, individual work, individualized learning styles, cooperative learning between teacher and student, pose questions, generate activities, and work together

7. Educational Inequity

7.1. Social class remains the most powerful factor in explaining educational inequalities

7.1.1. relationship between family background and economic outcomes is fairly consistent

7.2. Functionalist - schooling process will produce unequal results, based on individual differences between students, NOT on group differences

7.2.1. Imperative to understand sources of educational inequality so as to ensure the elimination of structural barriers and provide all groups a fair chance to compete in the educational martketplace

7.3. Coleman Report - argued that school differences were not the most significant explanatory variable for the lower educational achievement of working-class and nonwhite students

7.4. cultural deprivation theory - working-class and nonwhite families often lack cultural resources, thus arriving at school at a significant disadvantage

7.5. cultural difference - cultural dispositions and lacking skills and attitudes required by schools; result of social forces such as poverty, racism, discrimination, and unequal life chances.

8. Politics of Education

8.1. Conservative: Emphasis on the individual; solutions to problems should be addressed on an individual level.

8.1.1. Role of school: essential to economic productivity and social stability

8.1.2. Individuals or groups rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative.

8.1.3. Achievement based on hard work

8.1.4. Darwin: social evolution

8.2. Neo-Liberal: Synthesis of conservative and liberal perspectives.

8.2.1. Reform stresses 5 areas for educational policy:

8.2.1.1. Austerity

8.2.1.2. The Market Madel

8.2.1.3. Individualism

8.2.1.4. State Intervention

8.2.1.5. Economic Prosperity

8.3. Traditional Vision: schools necessary for transmission of values

9. Educational Reform

9.1. A Nation at Risk - began the first wave of reform (1983) - accountability

9.1.1. Goals 2000 - Clinton

9.1.2. NCLB - Bush

9.1.3. RTT - Obama

9.2. State Governor's Conference - "Time for Results: The Governor's 1991 Report on Education" (1986) - year long analysis of teaching, leadership and management, parent involvement and choice, technology, school facilities, and college qualities - made recommendations

9.3. Broader Bolder Approach - schools are limited institutions for eradicating the effect on poverty and its effects on children

9.4. educational reform and improvement must consider problems of both equity and quality - Ron Edmonds