EXIN Agile Scrum Foundation

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EXIN Agile Scrum Foundation 作者: Mind Map: EXIN Agile Scrum Foundation

1. 0. Before you start

1.1. About EXIN

1.2. About EXIN Agile Scrum Program

2. 1. Agile Way of Thinking

2.1. Topics & Concepts

2.1.1. 1.1 Concepts of Agile and Scrum Agile Manifesto Continuous integration Customer Escaped defect Extreme programming (XP) Pair programming Refactoring Scrum Agile Statement of value Test-driven software development Waterfall/Crystal Clear method

2.2. Benefits

2.2.1. For professionals Based on the world-wide accepted Agile Scrum body of knowledge, enabling the organizations and professionals to use a global and recognized practices Use different Agile practices as a toolbox to gain in terms of practical usage and resources consuming

2.2.2. For business Common practices exist to support organizations and not to create another island and a bridge between them The Agile way of working introduces many different tools of using agile and scrum in an organization. With that it is applicable to many different departments and not just for software development or project management

2.3. Sample exam questions

2.3.1. What is an assertion of the Agile manifesto? Alternatives A. We value contract negotiation over customer collaboration. B. We value following a plan over responding to change. C. We value processes and tools over individuals and interaction. D. We value working software over comprehensive documentation. Correct answer D. Correct. Value working software over comprehensive documentation is an assertion of the Agile manifesto.

2.3.2. According to Agile principles, what should be the pace of development? Alternatives A. Fast B. Increasing C. Sustainable Correct answer C. Correct. The key benefits of a sustainable pace are that developers are more focused on producing than working. This leads to a happier work environment and higher productivity.

2.3.3. According to Agile principles, which type of team can come up with the best requirements, architectures and design? Alternatives A. Co-located B. Experienced C. Self-organized D. Well trained Correct answer C. Correct. The best architectures, requirements and designs emerge from self-organized teams.

2.3.4. One person is working on the code and another person is observing, critiquing and occasionally switching roles. What practice is being followed here? Alternatives A. Code review B. Continuous integration C. Pair programming D. Test-driven development Correct answer C. Correct. Pair programming is the practice of two developers working on one terminal - one as the driver and another as the navigator.

3. 2. Scrum practices

3.1. Topics & Concepts

3.1.1. 2.3 The importance of the Backlog Backlog Increment Product Backlog Item (PBI)

3.1.2. 2.1 Scrum roles Coach Commitment Communication Scrum Master Product Owner Development Team or "Team"

3.1.3. 2.2 Scrum events Daily stand-up Distributed team Osmotic communication Timeboxing Sprint Sprint Backlog Item (SBI) Sprint Planning Sprint Retrospective Sprint Review Stand-up Invest

3.1.4. 2.4 Definition of Done Definition of Done (Done)

3.2. Benefits

3.2.1. For professionals Perform a smooth transition from traditional projects to Agile Scrum practices Develop the Agile mindset optimizing the organization tasks and resources Be an Agile Scrum team player Put in practice the main Scrum Events in customer/organization projects Manage a backlog and define the right priorities according with the Voice of the Customer to deliver value on the projects

3.2.2. For business Not just agile project managers but an agile way of working at the organization, being flexible, responsive, quick, innovative, customer oriented Knowing and understanding the technical use of scrum methodologies is not enough. It becomes just another project management approach and not a different way of working Direct the training investment and resources according with what they need Professionals will be able to understand not only the main framework but also the practical concepts that must be use to drive them to deliver well done projects Priorities are organized according with the Voice of the Customer

3.3. Sample exam questions

3.3.1. During the Daily Scrum three questions are answered. Which question is one of these questions? Alternatives A. What obstacles are in the way? B. Who should take on the next task? C. Which requests of the customer did we receive? Correct answer A. Correct. This is one of the questions answered in a Daily Scrum together with "What has been accomplished since the last meeting?" and "What will be done before the next meeting?"

3.3.2. A Scrum Team thought it a good practice to clearly define a checklist of items that must be completed before calling a story "completed". What artifact are they likely to use for this? Alternatives A. Burn-Down Chart B. Definition of Done C. Product Backlog D. Sprint Backlog Correct answer B. Correct. Definition of Done is a well understood and clearly documented definition of items that must be established to mark a story (or iteration or project) to be done.

3.3.3. Near the end of a Sprint, the Development Team realizes that they will not be able to complete the stories they had committed to. What is the best course of action for the Development Team? Alternatives A. Add resources and team members to meet the goals of the current Sprint. B. Ask the Product Owner to decide which stories can be delayed until the next Sprint. C. Decide on a new Definition of Done for the Sprint Backlog Items. Correct answer B. Correct. The Product Owner should decide which items have the most value and should be done first in this Sprint. (Literature A: Scrum Roles)

3.3.4. An often used best practice is to define User Stories according to the acronym ‘INVEST’. The ‘S’ of ‘INVEST’ means Small. Regarding the User Story in a Sprint, what must be small? Alternatives A. the number of Sprints needed to realize the User Story B. the number of team members involved C. the Story Points or Ideal Hours involved D. the length of the written-out User Story Correct answer C. Correct. User Stories at the top of the Product Backlog, and thus Stories in the Sprint, have to be small. They need to be small to ensure that they fit into 1 Sprint and that they are defined precisely enough.

3.3.5. Which of the following statements best describes the role that the Daily Scrum plays in the monitoring of a Scrum project? Alternatives A. The Daily Scrum helps the Scrum Master to update the burn-down chart. B. The Daily Scrum gives the Development Team insight into their progress and their issues. C. The Daily Scrum lets the Product Owner review the progress of the Team. Correct answer B. Correct. This is exactly what the Daily Scrum is for. 3 questions should be asked daily: What has been done since last meeting? What will be done before the next meeting? What obstacles are in the way? Anything else should be discussed outside of the Daily Scrum.

3.3.6. The S of INVEST stands for Small. Which items on the product backlog should be small? Alternatives A. All items in the Product Backlog B. The items on the top of the Product Backlog C. The items on the bottom of the Product Backlog D. Only items on the Sprint Backlog must be small Correct answer B. Correct. The items on the top should be small, because these are the items that are split-up Epic User Stories and are defined precisely enough to incorporate in the (next) Sprint.

3.3.7. The Development Team determines that it has over-committed itself for a Sprint. Who should be present when reviewing and adjusting the Sprint work? Alternatives A. The Development Team, the Scrum Master and the Product Owner. The Stakeholders should be consulted. B. The Development Team and the Scrum Master. The Product Owner should be consulted. C. The Development Team only. The Product Owner should be consulted. Correct answer C. Correct. The Development Team itself has to make decisions about how to distribute the work. They need to redistribute the work amongst themselves. If the process needs guidance, they can ask the Scrum Master to guide the discussion. The Product Owner needs to be consulted to ensure that tasks dropped have the lowest value for the customer.

3.3.8. A Scrum Team selects a Product Backlog Item (PBI) for the Sprint Backlog. What must the Development Team do to finish the Product Backlog Item it selects? Alternatives A. As much as can be done in the Sprint before the deadline. B. As much as is required to satisfy the Definition of Done. C. Analyze, design, program, test and document the Product Backlog Item. Correct answer B. Correct. The Definition of Done is guiding in what needs to be done before a Backlog Item is finished.

3.3.9. A Team is transitioning into Scrum. They already had a role called Project coordinator, who facilitates interactions, removes roadblocks and acts as the process coach of the Team. What should this role be called after the transition? Alternatives A. Project coordinator B. Project manager C. Scrum Master D. Scrum project manager Correct answer C. Correct. The work of the Project Coordinator is similar to that of the Scrum Master. It's important in Scrum not to change the names for the different roles. This helps to keep Scrum working.

3.3.10. A customer requests a report that summarizes functionality added and defects found and fixed, right at the end of a Sprint. Who can best prepare this report? Alternatives A. The Product Owner B. The Scrum Master C. The Development Team D. This type of report should not be prepared. Correct answer B. Correct. The Scrum Master should indeed get the impediments of the Development Team out of the way and is thus in the best position to write this report.

3.3.11. What is the primary responsibility of a Scrum Master in order to keep a Scrum Team working at its peak level of productivity? Alternatives A. Keeping high priority features at the top of the Product Backlog. B. Not allowing changes to the Product Backlog once the Sprint begins. C. Supporting the Development Team’s decisions and resolving their issues. Correct answer C. Correct. This is the job of the Scrum Master.

3.3.12. A Sprint just concluded and it was a disaster. None of the planned stories were completed and the review had to be cancelled. Senior management wants to establish accountability for this. Who is ultimately accountable for the success or failure of a Scrum project? Alternatives A. The Product Owner B. The Scrum Master C. Senior Management D. The Development Team Correct answer D. Correct. The Development Team is collectively accountable for success or failure of a Scrum project.

3.3.13. Who knows most about the progress towards a business objective or a release? Alternatives A. The Product Owner B. The Scrum Master C. The Development Team Correct answer A. Correct. This is a task of the Product Owner, as she is the Voice of the Customer.

3.3.14. A Scrum Team failed to meet the Sprint objectives. One of the key members of the Development Team fell ill and was away for 2 days right at the beginning of the 4-week Sprint. What is the most likely reason that the Team did not meet the Sprint objectives? Alternatives A. The Product Owner is unable to prioritize. B. The Development Team is lacking skills. C. The Team did not plan the Sprint effectively. D. The Development Team is over-worked. Correct answer C. Correct. The Development Team likely did not estimate the Backlog Items well and did not plan the work well. A 2-day absence should not lead to not meeting Sprint Objectives, especially not if that was at the beginning of the Sprint.

3.3.15. A Product Owner wants a story to be completed in two days. The Development Team member working on the Story reckons it will take five days. The Scrum Master feels it should take three days. A subject matter expert, who has worked on similar Stories in the past, thinks it should be at most a one day effort. Whose estimate should be used for planning? Alternatives A. The Product Owner's B. The Scrum Master's C. The Subject Matter Expert D. The Development Team Correct answer D. Correct. At the end of the day, the only estimate that matters is the one given by the team members working on the story.

3.3.16. Senior management wants to regularly audit if the Scrum Team is following Scrum practices and principles. Who is in the best position to conduct such an audit? Alternatives A. The Product Owner B. The Scrum Master C. The Development Team D. The Testers Correct answer B. Correct. One of the Scrum Master's responsibilities is to be the coach of the Team and to ensure that the Team is following the Scrum processes. This allows the Scrum Master to conduct this audit.

3.3.17. The Product Owner is going on a three-week vacation. The Team should be closing the current Sprint and starting a new Sprint at the end of the first week of the Product Owner’s vacation. What is the best way to continue the Scrum rituals in this situation? Alternatives A. Each Scrum Team should ideally have two Product Owners to provide cover. B. The Product Owner should be requested to delay his vacation by a week. C. The Scrum Master should take over and cover for the Product Owner. Correct answer C. Correct. In a well-planned Sprint, the Scrum Master can take over from the Product Owner for a little while. If the Product Backlog Items are ordered well, it should be self-evident what should be done next. If necessary, the Scrum Master can take over this task.

3.3.18. A team member from a Scrum Team feels that a senior technical architect from another team may have some valuable insights and feedback about the product. What is the best event to ask for this feedback? Alternatives A. Daily Scrum B. Sprint Planning C. Sprint Retrospective D. Sprint Review Correct answer D. Correct. The Sprint Review is a working demo of the product being built and is the best event to invite external stakeholders and get their input. The product shown in the Sprint Review is not the final product. The final product is presented in the Release Sprint. Every other Sprint Review is a good moment to ask for input.

3.3.19. What is a Sprint? Alternatives A. A brainstorming session in Extreme programming to generate design ideas. B. A race between two developers to see who can complete a feature fastest. C. One iteration in the Scrum methodology. D. The last iteration in the Scrum project, when the Team works long hours to finish the project. Correct answer C. Correct. An iteration is called a Sprint.

4. 3. Scrum planning

4.1. Topics & Concepts

4.1.1. 3.1 Scrum Planning MoSCoW Planning Planning onion Planning poker Priority Release planning Story Story point Succession Succession Planning

4.1.2. 3.2 Scrum Estimation Affinity estimation Elapsed time Estimation Ideal hours/ Ideal days Triangulation Velocity of the team

4.2. Benefits

4.2.1. For professionals Provide a Scrum project estimation according with best practices, saving time, resources and money

4.2.2. For business The whole concept of implementing scrum and agile ways of working is to decrease cost, be flexible and responsive , support during the transition process and save money in the end with clear project estimation techniques

4.3. Sample exam questions

4.3.1. A Scrum Team is estimating User Stories. The Scrum Master suggests the Planning Poker technique. What is the process of Planning Poker? Alternatives A. Compare the Story to reference Stories and then estimate it. B. Estimate on your own, then discuss everyone else's estimates. C. Sort all Stories based on their relative effort required. Correct answer B. Correct. This is Planning Poker.

4.3.2. How long should it take a 5 member Scrum Team to finalize the Sprint Planning for a 3 week Sprint? Alternatives A. 3-6 hours B. 3-6 days C. as long as it takes Correct answer A. Correct. The Sprint Planning meeting is a time-boxed meeting. Usually it is fixed to 8 hours for a 4-week Sprint, or proportionally shorter for shorter Sprints.

4.3.3. Why does the Daily Scrum need to be held at the same location and time? Alternatives A. The booking of a room needs to be done in advance for the duration of the Sprint. B. The constant time and place is best for continuity of the Scrum framework. C. The Project Manager needs to get the status updates at a given time every day. Correct answer B. Correct. The participation of the Development Team is mandatory. It is easier to organize the daily work around a constant Event throughout the sprint.

4.3.4. In the past 8 Sprints, the Scrum Team has completed 85 story points worth of work altogether. The Scrum Team has been asked to start working on a new project which is estimated at 64 story points. How many Sprints would be needed to complete this project? Alternatives A. 5 sprints B. 7 sprints C. 8 sprints D. 10 sprints Correct answer B. Correct. The Velocity of the team is 85/8=10.625. The number of Sprints required to complete the project is 64/velocity (64/10.625=6.024), which works out to be slightly above 6. Hence 7 is the most reasonable answer, since we should never round these estimates down.

4.3.5. A Scrum Team estimates a Story using the Planning Poker technique. The Team decides to allocate 5 Story Points to a Story, because the developers estimated 2 points and the testers estimated 3 points. Which statement is true regarding this scenario? Alternatives A. Points are assigned by the Scrum Master, not by the Development Team. B. Points are assigned for the overall Story, not for parts of the Story. C. Points are never estimated, but always determined beforehand. D. The Development Team also needs to ask the Product Owner about the estimate. Correct answer B. Correct. The Story should be estimated as a whole. Points for what a tester feels he needs plus what a developer feels he needs should not be given. Both should estimate the complete Story.

4.3.6. The Product Backlog is ordered from most valuable to least valuable. There are a few criteria that determine how valuable a Product Backlog Item is. What are these criteria? Alternatives A. Benefits, Cost, Risks B. Benefits, Cost, Size C. Time on the backlog, Cost, Risks D. Time on the backlog, Cost, Size Correct answer A. Correct. These three are relevant for ordering the PBI's.

4.3.7. A Scrum Team works on a project in 2-week Sprints. During the Sprint Planning meeting of the fifteenth Sprint, the Scrum Master says: "We have seen from the last 12 Sprints that we cannot deliver potentially shippable increments in 2 weeks. Let's increase the duration for Sprint 16." Should the duration be increased? Alternatives A. Yes, because the Scrum Master can change the Sprint duration. B. Yes, because past Sprint performance is a good reason to change. C. No, because the Sprint duration cannot be changed, for any reason. D. No, because only Development Team members may change Sprint duration. Correct answer B. Correct. The Scrum Master gives a valid argument, based on a good amount of earlier work, that the Sprint duration should be changed.

4.3.8. Agile planning happens at multiple levels including a daily plan, a sprint plan and a strategic plan. What term best describes the multi-level planning? Alternatives A. Planning Onion B. Planning Poker C. Sprint Planning Correct answer A. Correct. When you show the different levels of planning in Scrum in a diagram, this looks like an Onion.

5. 4. Monitoring Scrum projects

5.1. Topics & Concepts

5.1.1. 4.1 Scrum Monitoring Burn-down chart Information radiator Niko-niko calendar Report

5.2. Benefits

5.2.1. For professionals Speed up their catch up through information radiators

5.2.2. For business Significantly improve update time by using information radiators

5.3. Sample exam questions

5.3.1. Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of information radiators? Alternatives A. Current B. Detailed C. Provided on a "need to know" basis D. Stable Correct answer A. Correct. The most important thing for an Information Radiator is that it is current. If it is not current, people still need to start looking at other information sources, while the idea is that an Information Radiator brings the information to you.

5.3.2. While reviewing a bar style release Burn-Down chart, a newly appointed Scrum Master observed that the bottom of the bar had moved above the horizontal axis between Sprint 3 and 4. What happened in Sprint 3? Alternatives A. The Development Team finished less than the allocated stories. B. The Development Team finished more than the allocated stories. C. Work got added to the Product Backlog. D. Work got removed from the Product Backlog. Correct answer D. Correct. In a release level Burn-Down bar chart, work getting removed from the Product Backlog can be indicated by moving the bottom of the bar up. This shows that the new 0-axis is at the same level of the bar. When that point is reached, no more work needs to be done, even though the graph will not say 0 yet.

5.3.3. For a Sprint, progress is monitored in a Burn-Down Chart. What does a Burn-Down Chart show? Alternatives A. The amount of completed work B. The amount of remaining work C. The velocity of the Development Team Correct answer B. Correct. The Burn-Down Chart shows the amount of work remaining: it is a downward-sloping chart.

5.3.4. Your team uses a Kanban board. The Work in Progress (WIP) limit of a column on the Kanban board is reached. What is expected of you when this happens? Alternatives A. Assign work to co-workers in the next column to free capacity. B. Enlarge the Work in Progress limit and keep working. C. Help the co-workers in the column with the bottleneck. D. Wait until work is pulled to the next column to free capacity. Correct answer C. Correct. When the WIP limit is reached, this is not a sign to relax, but rather a sign that there is a bottleneck. This bottleneck should be addressed. The team has to help the co-workers that are the reason why the WIP limit is reached.

5.3.5. What is the definition of Velocity of a Team? Alternatives A. A shared understanding of how fast a Sprint must be done. B. The optimum Work in Progress limit for each Sprint. C. The number of Story Points a Team can finish in 1 Sprint. D. The sum of all completed Sprint Backlog Items. Correct answer C. Correct. The velocity is the number of units of work completed in a certain interval.

6. 5. Advanced Scrum concepts

6.1. Topics & Concepts

6.1.1. 5.1 Scrum in different situations Scrum-of-Scrum Splitting teams Workspace

6.2. Benefits

6.2.1. For professionals Manage and use resources from different time zones, cities, countries on the same team, reducing any kind of barriers Develop and understand an Agile Scrum contract, reducing legal issues and preventing project loss Use a guideline about how to create an Agile workspace, supporting the organization transition

6.2.2. For business Enables simple and complex project teams Clarity on contracts and deliverables upfront rather than based upon escalation after delivery. Commercial side is important Not just learning a trick but also how to create an environment in which to operate

6.3. Sample exam questions

6.3.1. A Scrum Team realizes that it may be late in delivering a component that another Scrum Team is waiting for. What is the best forum to discuss this issue and find a resolution? Alternatives A. Daily Scrum of either Team B. Scrum-of-Scrums C. Sprint Review D. Sprint Retrospective Correct answer B. Correct. The Scrum-of-Scrums is a coordination meeting where dependencies and resolution of cross-team issues can be discussed.

6.3.2. How should ’Done’ be defined when multiple Scrum Teams are working on a single product? Alternatives A. All Scrum Teams work towards an integrated Definition of Done. B. Each Scrum Team must define and use their own Definition of Done. C. The Scrum Master defines when the item is Done. Correct answer A. Correct. Using an integrated Definition of Done ensures that the pieces of the project will fit together and are in the same state of Done. (Literature: Definition of Done & Scaled Scrum)

6.3.3. Collaboration is the most important parameter for the success of a Scrum Team. What term best describes this type of interaction? Alternatives A. Distributed team working B. Information radiator sharing C. Osmotic communication Correct answer C. Correct. Having Team members co-located in a single room is not just about making conversations easier, but also about osmotic communications, where people can gain useful information by overhearing and help each other as needed. (Literature: Osmotic Communication)

6.3.4. Which contract type is adaptive and therefore fits well with the Scrum way of working? Alternatives A. The contract type "Time & means or fixed unit" B. The contract type "Fixed price" C. Neither contract type Correct answer A. Correct. "Time & means or fixed unit"– this is our preferred type of contract, which is compatible with the adaptive nature of the project." "Fixed Price– even though most customers like fixed price, fixed scope contracts and even some of them are required by law to have only fixed price contracts, it is not really Agile." So adaptiveness is the key value. It is hard to be adaptive when the project price is fixed. This is why "Time & means or fixed unit" clearly fits easier with Agile and Scrum.