Cognition, Memory and Language

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Cognition, Memory and Language 作者: Mind Map: Cognition, Memory and Language

1. Memory

1.1. Working Memory

1.1.1. Chapter Author Graham J Hitch

1.1.2. 1. Introduction 1.1 Human memory as a multifaceted system Evidence suggests memory is not a single system Oldest thoretical distinction - STM/LTM 1.2 Distinction between short-term and long-term memory Observations suggest two separate storage systems. 'Modal' model 5.1 Understanding ‘garden-path’ sentences Shallice and Warrington (1970) 1.3 Working memory as more than STM 5.2 Studying the effect of an irrelevant memory load on verbal reasoning Daneman and Carpenter (1980) Turner and Engle (1989)

1.1.3. 2. The structure of working memory 2.1 A multicomponent model Baddeley and Hitch (1974) Observation suggests there are separate resources for dealing with verbal and visuo-spatial information Baddeley and Lieberman (1980) Logie (1995) Smyth and Waller (1998) Alternative accounts to the Baddeley & Hitch (1974) / Baddeley (1986) model 2.2 Phonological working memory Baddeley et al. (1975) Baddeley et al. (1984) 2.2.1 Developmental and cross-linguistic differences 2.2.2 The irrelevant speech effect 2.2.3 Neural basis 2.2.4 Theoretical issues 2.3 Executive processes 2.3.1 Central workspace 2.3.2 Attention 2.3.3 Fractionation 2.3.4 Coherence and the binding problem

1.1.4. 3. Vocabulary acquisition 3.1 Neuropsychological evidence Baddeley et al. (1988) Patient KF Cowan (1988) 3.2 Individual differences If learning vocab depends on the capacity to hold a phonological sequence over a short interval, then the two abilities should be correlated Baddeley et al. (1998) Gathercole et al. (1997) Service (1992) Papagno and Vallar (1995) 3.3 Experimental studies Papagno and Vallar (1992) Papagno etal.(1991) Evidence suggests that for adults the phonological loop is necessary for learning non-words

1.1.5. 4. Modelling the phonological loop Two-component model insufficient Learning? Long-term phonologcal memory? How is the order of items remembered? Mathematical and computational models of the phonological loop Brown et al. (2000) Burgess and Hitch (1992, 1999) Page and Norris (1998) Test of adequacy 4.1 Serial order Associative models Non-associative models Temporal grouping effect

1.1.6. Chapter notes by Tim Holyoake,

1.1.7. Baddeley, A. (2000) ‘The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?’, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol.11, pp.417–23.

1.1.8. Baddeley, A. (2003) ‘Working memory and language: an overview’, Journal of Communication Disorders, vol.36, pp.189–208.

1.2. Long Term Memory: Encoding to retrieval

1.2.1. 1 Introduction Episodic Memory Encoding, Storage and Retrieval

1.2.2. 2 Encoding 2.1 Levels of processing ‘Multi-store’or‘Modal’ memory model. Depth of Processing Type I Processing Type II Processing 2.2 Relational and item-specific processing Relational processing (Elaboration) Item-specific processing (Integration) 2.2.1 Encoding processing and Mandler’s (1980) dual-process model of recognition

1.2.3. 3 Memory stores and systems 3.1 Multiple memory systems Episodic Memory Semantic Memory 3.2 Declarative and procedural memory Declarative knowledge Procedural knowledge

1.2.4. 4 Retrival 4.1 Encoding specificity and transfer appropriate processing Encoding specificity Transfer appropriate processing (TAP)

1.2.5. 5 Implicit memory 5.1 Perceptual and conceptual implicit memory Conceptual implicit tests 5.2 Accounts of implicit memory 5.2.1 TAP account 5.2.2 Memory systems accounts 5.3 Implicit memory and amnesia

1.2.6. 6 Jacoby's process-dissociation framework

1.2.7. 7 Remember and know judgements 7.1 Do remember and know judgements reflect different response criteria?

1.3. Autobiographical Memory and the Working Self

1.3.1. 1 What are autobiographical memories?

1.3.2. 2 Autobiograpical memory across the lifespan Working Self Conway and Pleydell-Pearce (2000) Lifespan retrieval curve 2.1 Childhood amnesia 2.2 The reminiscence bump 2.3 Recency

1.3.3. 3 Autobiogrphical knowledge, episodic memory, the working self and memory construction 3.1 Autobiographical knowledge 3.1.1 General events 3.1.2 Lifetime periods 3.2 Episodic and semantic memory 3.2.1 Recollective experience 3.3 The working self Retrieval mode 3.3.1 Goals and the working self 3.4 Constructing autobiographical memories Generative retrieval Direct retrieval

1.3.4. 4 Autobiographical memory in distress Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 4.1 Traumatic event 4.2 Response at the time of trauma 4.3 Subsequent psychological symptoms 4.3.1 Re-experiencing symptoms including intrusive memories 4.3.2 Avoidance symptoms 4.3.3 Amnesia as avoidance 4.3.4 Hyperarousal symptoms 4.4 Impact of symptoms 4.5 The nature of intrusive trauma memories

1.3.5. 5 What are autobiographical memories for?

2. Concepts and Language

2.1. Language Processing

2.1.1. 1 Introduction Mental lexicon

2.1.2. 2 Word recognition 2.1 Spoken word recognition 2.1.1 Segmenting the speech stream 2.1.2 Parallel activation 2.1.3 Lexical competition 2.2 Visual word recognition 2.2.1 Models of visual word recognition 2.2.2 Mappings between spelling and sound 2.2.3 Eye movements in reading

2.1.3. 3 The mental lexicon Semantic content Semantic organization 3.1 Morphology Morphemes Inflectional change Inflectional morphology Derivational morphology Full-listing approach Decompositional approach 3.2 Accessing word meanings Spreading activation models 3.2.2 Semantic ambiguity

2.1.4. 4 Sentence comprehension 4.1 Syntax Phrase structure Thematic role assignment 4.2 Models of parsing Garden path model Constraint-based model 4.3 Is parsing autonomous? 4.4 Constraints on parsing

2.1.5. 5 Conclusion

2.2. Concepts

2.2.1. Explaining categorization

2.2.2. Where next?

2.3. Language and Thought

3. Cognition

3.1. Problem Solving

3.2. Judgement and Decision Making

3.3. Reasoning